music dictionary : Tp - Tr

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TPabbreviation of Taschenpartitur/Studienpartitur (German: Study Score - partition de poche (French))
t.p.abbreviation of tempo primo
TpMabbreviation of Takte pro Minute (German: beats per minute - the German equivalent of bpm (English))
TPosabbreviation of Tenor-Posaune (German: tenor trombone - trombone ténor (French))
TPSabbrevation of télévision par satellite (French: satellite TV)
Tpt., tptabbreviation of 'trumpet'
Trabbreviation of 'treble' (voice)
Tr, Tr.abbreviation of Trommel (German: drum - tambour (French))
tr(s)abbreviation of 'tract(s)', 'treble' (instrument)
tr.abbreviation of trillo (Italian: trill), 'trill', 'treble' and 'transpose'
Trab(German m.) trot
trabado (m.), trabada (f.)(Spanish) fastened (made secure), smooth (sauce), jammed (get stuck), coherent
trabaja bastante, pero no le luce(Spanish) he works quite a lot, but it doesn't show (he makes quite an effort, but it doesn't show)
Trabajador(Spanish m.) worker, labourer
trabajar(Spanish) to work on, to act (in the theatre or cinema), to be under stress (structural engineering)
trabajar por horas(Spanish) to be paid by the hour
Trabajo (s.), Trabajos (pl.)(Spanish m.) work, writing, transaction
Trabajo a destajo(Spanish m.) piecework
Trabajo de equipo(Spanish m.) team work
Trabajo de chinos(Spanish m.) very intricate or laborious work (figurative)
Trabajo de media jornada(Spanish m.) part-time work
Trabajo eventual(Spanish m.) casual work
Trabajo intelectual(Spanish m.) brainwork
Trabajo que no se acaba nunca(Spanish m.) never-ending task, endless task
Trabajos manuales(Spanish arts and crafts
trabajoso (m.), trabajosa (f.)(Spanish) hard, laborious, difficult, bothersome
Trabalenguas(Spanish m.) tongue twister
Trabant(German m.) satellite
traben(German) to trot
Träblåsare(Swedish) woodwind
tra breve(Italian) shortly
Trac(French m.) stage fright, nerves
Tracas(French m.) worry
Tracasserie(French f.) fuss and bother, a state of disturbance, a series of petty disagreements
Tracé(French m.) line, layout (plan)
tracer(French) to draw, to trace, to write, to mark out (route, path)
Tracerythe ornamental intersecting stonework in the upper part of a window, screen or panel
Trachea(Latin, Italian f., from Greek, literally 'rough (artery)') windpipe, the tube extending from the larynx to the bronchi
Trachée-(artère)(French f.) windpipe, trachea
Trachelomyitisinflammation of the muscles of the neck
Trachomaa chronic contagious viral disease marked by inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye and the formation of scar tissue
Tracht(German f.) (national) costume
traditional formal dress worn by Schwaben women. This consists of a skirt worn with a black lace apron tied in the back. On top is a white cotton blouse with a black velvet vest over top. Under the tracht are two starched white petticoats
Trachtprügel, eine(German) a good hiding
trachten (nach)(German) to strive (for)
trächtig(German) pregnant
Track(English, German m.) in MIDI, the term 'track' designates a location where one records or plays back a musical message - usually a portion of the total arrangement. To illustrate, one might record an oboe melody line on track two, then record a bowed bass line on track three. When played, the sounds can be simultaneous. Most MIDI software now accommodates 64 tracks of music, enough for a rich orchestral sound
on an audio CD, a track is a single section of audio (typically a single song or piece of music) that you can jump to immediately
Track clearto erase the contents of a specific track
Tracker actionon the organ, another name for mechanical action
on the organ, a tracker is a long thin piece of wood used in mechanical-action instruments to open the valve
the generic term for a class of software music sequencers which, in their purest form, allow the user to arrange sound samples stepwise on a timeline across several monophonic channels. A tracker's interface is primarily numeric; notes are entered via the keyboard, while parameters, effects and so forth are entered in hexadecimal. A complete song consists of several small multi-channel patterns chained together via a master list
  • Tracker from which the third entry has been taken
Trackerssee 'tracker'
Trackingthe component of a records management system that ensures that you can locate records when you need to use them
(English, German n.) recording the individual tracks of a multitrack recording
Track mergeto merge the contents of two tracks and store the result in a third track
Track namenames like 'melody line', bass line', 'left hand', etc. are assigned to tracks as determined by the instrumentation of a sequence
Tracta soloistic chant from the Proper of the Mass that replaces the alleluia in penitential seasons, for example, Lent
(English, French m.) leaflet (in English, particularly a brief pamphlet or leaflet dealing with a political or religious argument)
Tractableeasily managed (controlled or taught or moulded)
Tractations(French f. pl.) dealings
Tractatus(Latin s./pl.) a treatise
Traction(French f.) action
Tractulussee 'neumatic notation'
Tractur(German f.) tracker
Tractus(from the Latin trahere, to draw out) tail
small line
pause sign
trad.abbreviation of 'traditional'
Trade 4s (or 8s, 2s)see 'trading 4s (or 8s, 2s)'
Trade carda printed card that was used in the 1880s and 90s as give-away advertising. They were generally printed in chromolithography on 3 x 5" paper cards though size and stock could vary to a great degree. They became very popular collectables and were often placed in albums. Trade cards predate postcard collecting
Trade ephemeratrade cards, bill headings and prints carry information of significance to many researchers, among them social, printing, local and family historians. Through these uninterpreted primary source materials, we are transported back to an age where commercial streets were hung with colourful shop signs, where a great number of exotic imported goods were available, where provincial shops sold an amazing range of goods, where booksellers sold not only books but also patent medicines and musical instruments, and where women had a surprisingly prominent role
Trademarkmarchio di fabbrica (Italian m.), Warenzeichen (German n.), marque de fabrique (French f.), marque déposée (French f.), marca de fábrica (Spanish f.), marca comercial (Spanish f.), marca personal (Spanish f.)
device or name secured by law or custom as representing a company, product, etc.
distinctive characteristic, etc.
Tradición(Portuguese f., Spanish f.) tradition
tradicional(Portuguese, Spanish) traditional, as in, for example, 'traditional' music
tradicionalmente(Spanish) traditional, as in, for example, 'traditional' music
Trading 4s (or 8s, 2s)in jazz, a form of discontinuous drum solo in which 4 bar (measure) sections are alternately played solo by the drummer, and by the band with another soloist (who goes first). The latter can be one particular soloist throughout, or it can cycle through the different instruments. Also, two different instrumental soloists can trade 4s with each other, such as the trumpet and the saxophone. This is called a 'chase'. Trading 4s usually goes on for one or two choruses
the word tradition comes from the Latin word traditio which means "to hand down" or "to hand over." It is used in a number of ways in the English language:
a memebeliefs or customs taught by one generation to the next, often orally. For example, we can speak of the tradition of sending birth announcements
a set of customs or practicesfor example, we can speak of Christmas traditions
a broad religious movementone made up of religious denominations or church bodies that have a common history, customs, culture, and, to some extent, body of teachings. For example, one can speak of Islam's Sufi tradition or Christianity's Lutheran tradition
However, on a more basic theoretical level, tradition(s) can be seen as information or composed of information. For that which is brought into the present from the past, in a particular societal context, is information. This is even more fundamental than particular acts or practices even if repeated over a long sequence of time. For such acts or practices, once performed, disappear unless they have been transformed into some manner of communicable information
  • Tradition from which the extract above has been taken
Traditional culturesee 'folk culture'
Traditional dancea term synonymous with 'folk dance'
Traditional gripa technique used to hold drum sticks to play percussion instruments. Unlike matched grip, each hand holds the stick differently. Commonly, the right hand uses an overhand grip and the left hand uses an underhand grip. Traditional grip is almost exclusively used to play the snare drum, especially the marching snare drum, and the drum kit
Traditional knowledgealso called indigenous knowledge or local knowledge, this term generally refers to the matured long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional knowledge also encompasses the wisdom, knowledge, and teachings of these communities. In many cases, traditional knowledge has been orally passed for generations from person to person. Some forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through stories, legends, folklore, rituals, songs, and even laws. Other forms of traditional knowledge are often expressed through different means
Traditional musictraditional music is somewhat synonymous with folk music. Both terms are used semi-interchangeably amongst the general population; however, some musical communities that actively play living folkloric musics, have adopted the term traditional music as a means of distinguishing their music from the popular music called "folk music", especially the post-1960s "singer-songwriter" genre. Traditional music has certain characteristics: there is a tradition of oral transmission where music and sometimes dances associated with it have been passed down or learned over many generations, and the music derives from and is part of the traditions of a particular region or culture
Traditional notationsee 'standard notation'
Traditional pop musica neologism for Western popular music which encompasses music that succeeded big band music and preceded rock and roll as the most popular kind of music in the United States, most of Europe, and some other parts of the world. Its heyday is considered to be from the late 1940s to early 1960s. It evolved from big band music as a result of the emphasis shifting from the band to the singer
Traditional square dancethe form of square dance most often danced as part of a contra dance. The style of dance is also known as a quadrille. It is distinguished from modern Western square dance by repeated figures and the frequent use of live music
traditionnel (m.), traditionnelle (f.)(French) traditional
tradotto(Italian) translated
(Italian) arranged, adapted, fitted to
(Italian) transposed
Traducteur (m.), Traductrice (f.)(French) translator
Traducción(Spanish f.) translation
Traducción directa(Spanish f.) translation from a foreign language
Traducción inversa(Spanish f.) translation into a foreign language
Traducción simultánea(Spanish f.) simultaneous translation
traducir(Spanish) to translate
Traduction(French f.) translation
(French f.) arrangement
(French f.) transposition
traduire(French) to translate, to express (sentiment)
traduire en (français)(French) to translate into (French)
traduire en justice(French) to take to court
traduire vers (l'anglais)(French) to translate into (English)
traduit(French) translated
(French) arranged
(French) transposed
Tradutorre traditore(Italian, literally 'a translator is a traitor') an aphorism declaring that translation is impossible without misrepresentation (a comment addressed originally to the French who attempted to translate Italian into their mother tongue)
Traduzione(Italian f.) translation
(Italian f.) arrangement
(Italian f.) transposition
Træblæsere(Danish) woodwind
tráelo más acá(Spanish) bring it nearer
Trae puang(Southern Thailand) a percussion instrument made of 10 pieces of hardwood arranged perpendicular to the floor. By plunging a handle, the bars are made to resonate in rapid succession
traer aparejado, traer aparejada(Spanish) to mean, to entail
trafelato(Italian) breathless
Tragaluz(Spanish m.) dormer window
tragar el anzuelo(Spanish) to be taken in, to fall for it
tragarse el anzuelo(Spanish) to take the bait, to swallow the hook (figurative)
Tragbahre(German f.) a stretcher
tragbar(German) portable, wearable, bearable
tragbares Klavier(German n.) portable keyboard
träge(German) lazy, lazily, sluggish, sluggishly, inert
Tragedia(Italian f., Spanish f.) tragedy
Tragedia liricasee tragédie lyrique
Tragédie(French f.) tragedy
Tragédie en musiquesee tragédie lyrique
Tragédie lyrique(French f., German f.) or tragédie en musique (French f.), tragedia lirica (Italian f.), French serious opera, opéra sérieux, of the 17th- and 18th-centuries, with spectacular dance scenes and brilliant choruses, associated particularly with Jean Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) and Jean Philippe Rameau (1683-1764), criticized in its own day for its high flown, exaggerated and somewhat stilted treatment of tales of courtly love or heroic adventure
Tragédienne(French f.) an actress specializing in tragedy
Tragedya serious play in which the chief character, by some peculiarity of psychology, passes through a series of misfortunes leading to a final, devastating catastrophe. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragedy
tragen(German) to carry, to wear, to bear (figurative)
tragend(German) load-bearing (wall, etc.), pregnant
or portando (Italian), carrying over, a vocal portamento in which the singer slides from one note to the next, en portant (French)
tragen der Töne(German) portato
C. P. E. Bach describes the Tragen der Töne as 'slurring of notes by a slur of dots', consisting of a single variation of the pressure of the finger on a series of notes after each attack. These notes are held for their entire value in a legato or quasi-legato style
Träger(German m.) a porter, a bearer, a holder, a beam (in a building, etc.), girder, shoulder strap
Trägerkleid(German n.) a pinafore dress
Tragetasche(German f.) a carrier bag
Tragfläche(German f.) wing (of a plane), hydrofoil
Tragflächenboot(German n.) a hydrofoil (ship)
Tragflügelboot(German n.) a hydrofoil (ship)
Trägheit(German f.) sluggishness, laziness, inertia
tragicamente(Italian) tragically
Tragic flowanother term for the tragic hero's hamartia
Tragicomedia(Spanish f.) tragicomedy, tragicommedia (Italian f.), Tragikomödie (German f.)
Tragicomedya experimental literary work - either a play or prose piece of fiction - containing elements common to both comedies and tragedies. The genre is marked by characters of both high and low degree, even though classical drama required upper-class characters for tragedy and lower-class characters for comedy. Tragicomedies were of some interest in the Renaissance, but some modern dramas might be considered examples as well. Typically, the early stages of the play resembled those of a tragedy, but an abrupt reversal of circumstance prevent the tragedy (tragedia de lieto fin). In sixteenth century England, "tragicomedy" meant something rather different - a romantic play that violated the unities of time, place, and action, that glibly mixed high- and low-born characters, and that presented fantastic actions. Tragicomedy is a common genre in post-World War II British theatre, with examples springing from the pens of authors as varied as Samuel Beckett, Tom Stoppard, John Arden, Alan Ayckbourn and Harold Pinter
Tragicommedia(Italian f.) fictional work that blends aspects of the genres of tragedy and comedy. In English literature, from Shakespeare's time to the nineteenth century, tragicomedy referred to a serious play with either a happy ending or enough jokes throughout the play to lighten the mood (tragedia de lieto fin). In sixteenth century England, "tragicomedy" meant something rather different - a romantic play that violated the unities of time, place, and action, that glibly mixed high- and low-born characters, and that presented fantastic actions
  • Tragicomedy from which some of this extract has been taken
Tragik(German f.) tragedy
Tragikomödie(German f.) tragicomedy, tragicommedia (Italian f.), tragicomedia (Spamish f.)
tragique(French) tragic
tragiquement(French) tragically
tragisch(German) tragic, tragically
Tragödie(German f.) tragedy
Tragsitz(German) a device for lowering injured persons in safety from mountain precipices
Tragweite(German f.) range, consequence (figurative)
trahir(French) to betray
Trahison(French f.) betrayal, treason (crime)
Trahison des Clercs, la(French f., literally 'the treason of the intellectuals') (a complaint by Julien Benda (1867-1956) against) the involvement of intellectuals, who should follow abstract principles, into the arena of politics and nationalism
trainando(Italian) dragging, rallentando, schleppend
Train de luxe(French) a luxury train
traîné(French) slurred, bound, lingering, drawn along, dragged, legato, tratto, geschleppt
Trainer(German m.) trainer (a person who guides another in improving their physical or mental fitness, skills, etc.), (tennis-)coach
traîner(French) to drag
trainieren(German) to train
Training(English, German n.) working to improve physical or mental fitness, skills, etc.
Trainingsanzug(German m.) a tracksuit
Trainings-schuhe(German m. pl.) trainers (shoes)
Train whistlea wooden whistle that produces three different notes typical of the sound of a steam locomotive whistle
Train wreckin jazz, when everything comes off the rails - someone misses a repeat, skips the bridge, and so on
Trait(French m.) tract, passage, run, a division, a phrase
a succession of quick notes, sung or played, forming one tract
(French m.) a distinguishing characteristic (related to personality or cast of mind)
Trait de chant(French m.) melodic passage or phrase
Trait d'harmonie(French m.) succession of chords, a sequence of chords
Trait d'octave(French m.) rule of the octave
Trait d'union(French m.) hyphen, a bond or link that joins two disparate things
Traité(French m.) treatise (for example, on the theory or practice of music)
Traitement(French m.) salary
Traitement de données(French m.) data processing
Traitement de texte(French m.) word processing
Trakt(German m.) a section, a wing
Traktor(German m.) a tractor
Traktur(German f.) action
Trallalerofrom the 1920s, a remarkable polyphonic singing tradition from Genoa characterized by falsetto male singers in the upper voices, a resonant drone of basses on the bottom, a "guitar" part that vocalizes a plucking sound throughout, and an element of improvisation in all but the basses. This style may have roots in the Renaissance or earlier, as well as from Slavic cultures to the north
trällern(German) to hum a tune, to trill
Trallning(Swedish) where the words are unknown, a song is sung using only the syllables 'tra' and 'la'
Trama(Italian f., Spanish f.) plot (of a film, play, opera, etc.)
Tramenthe tramen is a drum loop which is very popular in drum and bass, made by combining several other classic breakbeats
  • Tramen from which the extract above has been taken
Tramontana(Italian) a cold north wind blowing from a mountain-range (particularly the Alps)
trampeln(German) to stamp one's feet, to trample
trampen(German) to hitch-hike (familiar)
TramporgelSwedish harmonium
Trance(English, German f.) along with drum and bass, trance is one of the newer additions to the dance music family tree. It developed out of early '90s techno, and has since split off into two distinct strains -- psychedelic (or Goa) trance and progressive house. The up-tempo, heavily electronic, swirling sounds of psychedelic trance can be heard booming from sound systems along the coastline of southwestern India, particularly Goa -- hence "Goa trance." Meanwhile, progressive house (a lighter derivative) is the music of choice in the both the burgeoning U.K. indoor club scene and the sun-drenched beaches and clubs of Ibiza
Trancecorea fairly recent development of the hardcore family. It incorporates all the hypnotic elements of trance layered over dense hardcore. Trancecore mainly a phenomenon of the United Kingdom
  • Trancecore from which the extract above has been taken
Trance musicSufi brotherhoods (tarikas) are common in Morocco, and music is an integral part of their spiritual tradition, in contrast to most other forms of Islam, which do not use music. This music is an attempt at reaching a trance state which inspires mystical ecstasy. The brothers hold hands in a circle and chant or dance. Sufi music is usually without rhythm
Trancestepa sub-genre of 'Drum and Bass' music, trancestep is the combination of riveting drums, deep, rolling basslines, and melodic synth sequences. Sometimes accompanied by vocals, tracks are generally upbeat, around 140 - 160 BPM (beats per minute)
  • Trancestep from which the extract above has been taken
Tranche(French) the cut edge (usually the fore-edge) of a book (which may be gilded or painted)
a slice of, mainly applied to fish
Tranche de vie(French) a slice of life, an unadorned representation in a work of art or literature of scenes and events from real life, squarcio di vita (Italian), ein Stück aus dem (wirklichen) Leben (German)
Tranchiermesser(German n.) a carving knife
tranchieren(German) to carve
Träne(German f.) a tear (from the eye)
tränen(German f.) to water (an eye)
Tränengas(German n.) tear-gas
Tranh(Vietnam) a zither with 10 brass strings, invented by Emperor Phuc Hy of China (2852 B.C.). Its base is made of ngo dong wood. The instrument is placed in front of the musician who uses his right hand to regulate the pitch and vibrato, while using his left hand to pluck the strings
Tränke(German f.) a watering-place, a drinking-trough
tränken(German) to water (cattle, etc.), to soak
Tranky Dooa Lindy Hop Jazz choreography, that first appeared at the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem during the 1940s
  • Tranky Doo from which the extract above has been taken
tranquil (m.), tranquille (f.)(French) alone, sagely, unhurried, undisturbed, calm, still, easy going, leisurely, sedate, laid-back, quiescent, ruhig, tranquillo
Tranquilcalm, peaceful, tranquillo (Italian), ruhig (German), tranquil (French m.), tranquille (French f.)
tranquillamente(Italian) quietly, calmly, tranquilly
tranquillement(French) quietly, calmly, tranquilly
Tranquillezza(Italian f.) tranquillity, calmness, quietness
Tranquillità(Italian f.) calm, tranquillity, quietude
Tranquillitypeace, calmness, tranquillità (Italian), Ruhe (German), tranquillité (French)
tranquilizzareto reassure
tranquillo(Italian) calm, tranquil, ruhig, tranquille
Tranquillycalmly, peacefully, tranquillamente (Italian), ruhig (German), tranquillement (French)
trans.abbreviation of 'translation' or 'translated' (as for example, 'trans. Smith' which means 'translation by Smith' or 'translated by Smith')
Transaktion(German f.) a transaction
transatlantico(Italian) transatlantic
Transazione(Italian f.) compromise
transc.abbreviation of 'transcription' or 'transcribed' (as for example, 'transc. Smith' which means 'transcription by Smith' or 'transcribed by Smith')
Transcendentala description applied to the piano style of Franz Liszt (1811-1886) and his disciples who sought to surpass the technical accomplishments of earlier pianists and also wished, through the piano, to rival the musical capabilities of the orchestra
during the twentieth century the term came also to be applied to music associated with meditative practices, particularly those derived from eastern cultures
Transcendentalisman American philosophical, religious, and literary movement roughly equivalent to the Romantic movement in England, that began around 1836 and continued up until the late 1850s, starting shortly after the Romantic period ends in England. Transcendental philosophy has had a profound effect on the American psyche, including the idea of independent, do-it-yourself self-reliance, the rejection of conformity, and a deep love of nature, much as the Romantic period influenced England. Traces of its voice - albeit somewhat muted - appear in the counter-cultural rhetoric of the 1960s and in ecological writings of the late twentieth-century
Transcribeto rearrange music for instruments other than those for which the work was originally written; such an arrangement is called a transcription
Transcripta handwritten copy of a document
Transcriptie(Dutch) transcription
Transcription(English, French f.) a work that has been transcribed, a term often used to mean an 'arrangement'. Strictly speaking, however, an arrangement involves only changing the medium (for example, from orchestra to piano), while a transcription means changing the layout or notation, as for example, when committing a live spontaneous performance to paper where the details of the original medium are preserved
transcrit(French) copied, transcribed
Transducera device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. Thus, a microphone is a transducer which converts variations of sound pressure into variations of electrical current, and a loudspeaker is a transducer which performs the reverse function. Such devices are termed 'electroacoustic'
Transducteur(French m.) transducer
Transducteur acoustique(French m.) sound transducer
Transducteur de son(French m.) sound transducer
Transeptthe transverse arm of a cross shaped church
Transfer(English, German m.) the movement of a person or object from one place to another (for example, a football player from one club to another)
Transfer functiona mathematical representation of the relation between the input and output of a system
Transfer of meaninga change in meaning, often poetic in origin, in which a word's referent alters by a figure of speech such as a synecdoche, a metaphor, or a metonym
Transferred epithetor 'hypallage', an adjective appropriate to one noun is attached to another by association: thus in the phrase sick room it is not strictly the room that is sick but the person in it
Transformateur(French m.) transformer
Transformation(English, French f.) or 'thematic transformation', the treatment of thematic material which drastically changes it while retaining specific characteristics that allow the listener to identity the result with the original, prevalent in dance music of the 17th-century, but most used in the 19th-century during the Romantic era
Transformation du son(French f.) sound modulation
Transformator(German m.) a transformer
Transformeran electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling, with no moving parts. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings, or a single tapped winding and, in most cases, a magnetic core to concentrate the flux. An alternating current in one winding will induce a current in the other windings
Transfusion(English, German f.) the transfer of blood from one person to another
Transición(Spanish f.) transition
Transientany of the non-sustaining, non-periodic frequency components of a sound, usually of brief duration and higher amplitude than the sustaining components, and occurring near the onset of the sound (attack transients)
Transient modulationmodulation to a key that persists only briefly before the piece modulates further to yet another key
Transient shakean alternative name for the upper mordent
trillo (Italian - although this term is used for a wide variety of 'trill-like' ornaments), Pralltriller (German), cadence (French)
Transiliencesomething transilient, that leaps across something, or from one thing to another
Transilientpassing abruptly or leaping from one thing, condition, etc. to another
Transilient scalewhere a scale is defined in terms of seven different notes (heptatonic scale), a transilient scale in one with fewer than seven notes. Comparing a transilient scale to a standard seven note scale one sees that when moving up or down the scale there will be jumps where notes are absent. Hexatonic and pentatonic scales are transilient scales. The term has been used by Herbert A. Popley in his The Music of India, pub. 1921
[entry prompted by Mark Lucas]
Transire(Latin) a warrant issued by a customs-house permitting the passage of merchandise
Transistor(Italian m., English, German m., French m.) a solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. It acts as a variable valve that, based on its input voltage, controls the current it draws from a connected voltage source. Transistors are made either as separate components or as part of an integrated circuit.
Transit(English, German m.) going, conveying or being conveyed
Transitio(Latin) a short passing change of key, an abrupt key change or modulation
Transitiontransizione (Italian), Übergang (German), transition (French)
(English, French f.) a short passing change of key, an abrupt key change
in general, a change from one unit, section, parameter, or element or set of parameters or elements, to another. Transitions may be smooth and connected, or disjointed and contrasting
transitiv(German) transitive, transitively
Transitivethis term refers to a verb or a verbal phrase that contains or can take a direct object, which contrasts with an intransitive verb, i.e., one that cannot take a direct object
transitoire(French) transitional
transitorio(Italian) transitory
Transitoriumthe counterpart in the Milanese rite of the Communion in the Roman rite
Transitory modulationsee 'tonicisation'
Transitus(Latin) a transition, a passing note
Transitus mundithe theme of life's ephemeral or transient nature, especially when that thematic exploration ends by suggesting humanity should reject the world or turn its attention away from mundane life and retreat to spiritual contemplation of the next life
Transitus regularis(Latin) a passing note placed on the unaccented parts of the bar
Transitus irregularis(Latin) an irregular passing note, a changing note
Transizione(Italian f.) transition
Transkription(German f.) transcription
Translatio(Latin, from translatere, 'to carry across') the medieval idea of what modern individuals might mistakenly call "translation." Translatio is the act of taking an older text in a different language and creating a new work that embodies the same ideas in a new language. Unlike modern translation, in which a translator often tries to convey each sentence, word, and phrase as literally and accurately as possible, the medieval idea of translatio was to take the gist of the original work's ideas and to convey them loosely in a new form
Translationthe act of conveying the meaning of words in one language by attempting to say the same thing in another language, as opposed to paraphrasing, summarizing, and transliteration
the movement or change from one person, place, or condition, to another
Transliterationthe representation of the symbols appearing in one language's writing system by those of another language's writing system
translucide(French) translucent
transmettre(French) to pass on, to transmit, to broadcast (radio)
transmettre ses remerciements à(French) to pass on one's thanks to
Transmission(English, French f.) radio broadcasting
transparaître(French) to show (through)
Transparence(French f.) transparency (picture)
Transparencya general reference to a photographic image on a transparent or translucent support, such as glass or film. Specifically a transparent positive image as opposed to a film negative
Transparent(German n.) a banner, a transparency (picture)
Transpiration(French f.) perspiration
transpirer(French) to perspire
transpirieren(German) to perspire
Transplantation(German f.) a transplant
transplanter(French) to transplant (medical, botantical)
Transposición (s.), Transposiciones (pl.)(Spanish f.) transposition
Transposición cromática(Spanish f.) chromatic transposition
transponer(Spanish) to transpose, transposer (French)
(Spanish) to move about, to cross over, to transplant
transponerse(Spanish) to to hide, to set (sun), to go down (sun), to doze off (to fall asleep)
transponeren(German, older spelling) to transpose
(Dutch) to transpose
Transponering(Sweden) transposition
transponieren(German) to transpose
transponierendes Instrument (s.), transponierende Instrumente (pl.)(German n.) transposing instrument
Transponierung ohne Tonartwechsel(German f.) scalar transposition
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
see 'transposition'
transponirendes Instrument (s.), transponirende Instrumente (pl.)(German n., archaic spelling) transposing instrument
Transponointi(Finnish) transposition
Transpornierharmonicaa glass harmonica
Transport(French m.) transport, transportation, rapture
(German m.) transport, consignment
Transportador(Spanish m.) protractor, transporter, conveyor
transportador (m.), transportadora (f.)(Spanish) transporting
transportar(Portuguese) to transpose (the pitch)
(Spanish) to transpose (the pitch), to transport, ecstasy (figurative), bliss (figurative)
transportare(Italian) to transpose (the pitch)
Transporteur(French m.) haulier, trucker (U.S.)
transportieren(German) to transport
Transportmittel(German n.) a means of transport
Transpose(literally, 'to move') transportare (Italian), transponieren (German), transposer (French), to write out or play a piece in a different key or one or more octaves higher or lower than it was originally written, the better to suit the singer or instrument
transposer(French) to transpose a piece into another key
Transposición(Spanish) transposition
Transposing instruments
instruments that do not play the notes that they read, i.e. bass flute, cor anglais (or English horn), oboe d'amore, oboe in E flat, Heckelphone, Sarrusophone, clarinets in B flat and A, bass clarinet, high clarinets in E flat and D, alto clarinet in E flat and F, basset horn, pedal clarinet, saxophones, cornets, French horns, trumpets, saxhorns
Instruments in C - 15ma (sounds two octaves above what is written)
Instruments in high D flat - high (sounds a minor ninth above what is written)
Piccolo in D flat
Instruments in C - 8va (sounds an octave above what is written)
Soprano (descant), sopranino, bass, great bass recorder
Tin whistle
Instruments in B flat - high (sounds a minor seventh above what is written)
Piccolo trumpet (may also be tuned to A)
Instruments in A flat - high (sounds a minor sixth above what is written)
A flat piccolo clarinet
Instruments in E flat - high (sounds a minor third above what is written)
E flat soprano clarinet
Sopranino saxophone
Instruments in D - high (sounds a major second above what is written)
D soprano clarinet
D trumpet (may also be tuned to E flat)
A selection of instruments in C - unison (sounds as written; these are nontransposing instruments)
Alto trombone
Tenor trombone
Bass trombone
Euphonium or Baritone horn when written in bass clef
Alto (treble), tenor, contra-bass (recorder)
Instruments in B flat (sounds a major second below what is written)
B flat soprano clarinet
Soprano saxophone
Instruments in A (sounds a minor third below what is written)
Oboe d'amore
A soprano clarinet
A Trumpet
Instruments in G (sounds a perfect fourth below what is written)
Alto flute
so-called Turkish clarinet
Instruments in F (sounds a perfect fifth below what is written)
English horn
Basset horn
Instruments in E flat (sounds a major sixth below what is written)
Alto clarinet
Alto saxophone
Instruments in C - 8vb (sounds an octave below what is written)
Bass flute
Double bass
Bass guitar
Instruments in B flat - low (sounds an octave and a major second below what is written)
B flat Bass clarinet
Tenor saxophone
Euphonium or Baritone horn when written in treble clef
Instruments in A - low (sounds an octave and a minor third below what is written)
A Bass clarinet (obsolete)
Instruments in E flat - low (sounds an octave and a major sixth below what is written)
E flat contra-alto clarinet
Baritone saxophone
Instruments in B flat - super low (sounds two octaves and a major second below what is written)
B flat contrabass clarinet
Bass saxophone
Note: many instruments read different clefs upon different occasions, also brass instruments can often be written as transposing instruments in various times depending on the ensemble (usually in B flat or E flat plus adjusting for the octave of the instrument)
in conductors' scores, most often the music for transposing instruments is written in transposed form, just as in the players' parts; but a few publishers, especially of contemporary music, provide conductors with music which is all at concert pitch. The argument for the latter practice is that it makes the pitch relationships of the entire sound easier for the conductor to read. The advantage of traditional practice is that it facilitates spoken communication in rehearsal since conductor and player are looking at the same notation
instruments that play any number of octaves above or below the written part are not usually defined as transposing instruments
Transposing keyboarda keyboard which effects a transposition mechanically. On the harpsichord, the commonest type slips sideways so that the keys may be made to lie under any one of several jacks and thus sound tones higher or lower than those normally assigned to each note
Transpositeur(French m.) piano transpositeur or 'transposing keyboard', on a pianoforte with a movable keyboard allowing for mechanical transposition. A similar mechanism is found on some harpsichords which allows the instrument to be played at two different pitches a semitone apart (for example, a' = 440Hz and a' = 415Hz) without retuning
Transpositie(Dutch) transposition
Transposition(German, English, Danish, French f.) the changing of the pitch of a piece without changing anything else, for example, to accommodate the more restricted vocal range of the more mature opera singer
there are two different kinds of transposition, depending on whether one is measuring intervals according to the chromatic scale or some other scale:
chromatic transposition one shifts every pitch in a collection of notes by a fixed number of semitones. For instance, if one transposes the pitches C4-E4-G4 upwards by four semitones, one obtains the pitches E4-G#4-B4
scalar transpositionTransponierung ohne Tonartwechsel (German f.), one shifts every pitch in a collection by a fixed number of scale steps relative to some scale. For example, if one transposes the pitches C4-E4-G4 up by two steps relative to the familiar C major scale, one obtains the pitches E4-G4-B4. If one transpoes the same pitches up by two steps relative to the F major scale, one obtains instead E4-G4-Bb4. Scalar transposition is sometimes called diatonic transposition, but this term can be misleading, as it suggests transposition with respect to a diatonic scale. However, scalar transposition can occur with respect to any type of scale, not just the diatonic
to write a part for a 'transposing instrument' is not strictly 'transposition' as the purpose of a 'transposing part' is to produce the correct notes from a particular instrument rather than to produce notes that have been transposed from those expected
see 'modes of limited transposition'
Transpositional equivalencetwo musical objects are transpositionally equivalent if one can be transformed into another by transposition. It is similar to enharmonic equivalence and octave equivalence. In many musical contexts, transpositionally equivalent chords are thought to be similar. Transpositional equivalence is a feature of musical set theory
Transposition scalesthe scales derived from raising the Hypo-Dorian scale (A, B, c, d, e, f, g, a, b, c', d', e', f', g', a') successively by one semitone, thus producing the Hypo-Iastian (starting on B flat), the Hypo-Phrygian (starting on B), the Hypo-Aeolian (starting on C), the Hypo-Lydian (starting on C sharp), the Dorian (starting on D), and so on. These scales should not be confused with the seven modes
Transubstantiationthe conversion of the whole substance of the bread and wine of the Eucharist into the whole substance of the body and blood of Christ
Transverse drumming
traditional drumming in which the drums are played lying on their side, the drummers sitting astride them, sometimes pressing one heel on the drumhead to change the pitch
in some traditions, a second percussionist can play a supporting ostinato with sticks on the side of the drum, behind the seated drummer
Transverse flutesee 'flute, transverse'
Trantran(Italian m.) routine (familiar)
Trapano(Italian m.) a drill
Trap van de toonladder(Dutch) degree of the scale
trapassare(Italian) to pierce, to pass away (die)
Trapasso(Italian n.) passage
Trapez(German n.) a trapeze, a trapezium (geometry)
Trapeze tailpiecea tailpiece design that has a hinge like mechanism on it and has a shape similar to a swinging trapeze
Trapezio(Italian m.) trapeze, trapezium
Trapezoidal-shaped violina violin with a trapezoidal-shaped sound box. Trapezoidal sound-boxes are also found on the kanunn a zither with 24 to 27 courses of silk-wound or nylon strings
Trap setsee 'drum kit'
Trapsgewijze beweging(Dutch) conjunct movement
Trapunta(Italian f.) a quilt
Trapworkthe mechanism on a keyboard instrument linking a pedal or knee lever with the part of the action it operates. For a typical pedal this would consist of: pedal (and its pivot or axle), pedal rod, roller (and its support, the roller board), tracker, riser (and its associated pivot), and adjustments at the junction of riser and register
Tráquea(Spanish f.) windpipe
Traquenard(French, literally 'ambush') a brisk late 17th-century German dance found in some ballets which is closely related to the gavotte
trarre(Italian) to draw, to obtain
trarre in inganno(Italian) to deceive
trasalendo(Italian) startled
trasalire(Italian) to start (be startled)
trasandato(Italian) shabby
trascendentale(Italian) transcendental
trascendere(Italian) to transcend, to go too far
trascicando(Italian) dragging, rallentando, schleppend
trascinando(Italian) dragging, rallentando, schleppend
trascinare(Italian) to drag
trascinarsi(Italian) to drag oneself
trascritto(Italian) copied, transcribed
trascrivere(Italian) to transcribe
Trascrizione(Italian f.) arrangement, transcription
trascurare(Italian) to neglect, to disregard
trascurabile(Italian) negligible
Trascuratezza(Italian f.) negligence
trascurato(Italian) negligent, neglected, slovenly
trasecolato(Italian) amazed
trasfigurare(Italian) to transfigure
trasformare(Italian) to transform
Trasformatore(Italian m.) transformer
Trasformazione del suono(Italian m.) sound modulation
trasgredire(Italian) to disobey, to infringe
Trasgressione(Italian f.) an infringement
Trashcan americanasee 'alternative country'
Träskofiol(Swedish) a wooden shoe fiddle
traslato(Italian) metaphoric
traslocare(Italian) to move
Trasloco(Italian m.) removal
trasmettere(Italian) to pass on, to broadcast (TV, radio), to transmit
Trasmettitore(Italian m.) a transmitter
Trasmissione(Italian f.) action, transmission, broadcast (TV, radio)
Trasmissione dal vivo(Italian f.) live broadcast, live transmission
Trasmissione elettrica(Italian f.) electro-mechanical action (in an organ)
Trasmissione meccanica(Italian f.) mechanical action (in an organ)
Trasmissione pneumatica(Italian f.) pneumatic action (in an organ)
Trasmissione radiofonica(Italian f.) radio transmission
Trasmissione televisiva(Italian f.) television transmission
Trasmittente(Italian m.) a transmitter
(Italian f.) a broadcasting station
trasognare(Italian) to day-dream
trasognato(Italian) dreamy
trasparente(Italian) transparent
trasparenza(Italian f.) a transparency
trasparire(Italian) to show (through)
traspirare(Italian) to perspire, to tranpire (figurative)
Traspiazione(Italian f.) perpiration
trasporre(Italian) to transpose
trasportare(Italian) to transport
trasportare da, lasciarsi(Italian) to let oneself be carried away
Trasporto(Italian m.) transport
Trasposizione(Italian f.) transposition
trastabillar(Spanish) to stumble, to trip, to stagger, to totter, to stutter, to stammer
Traste(Spanish m.) fret, sillet (French), frette (French), capodastre (French)
(Spanish m., Latin-American) a piece of junk
trastear(Spanish) to play (music)
(Spanish) to rummage about, to twist around one's little finger (figurative)
Trastero(Spanish m.) junk room
Trastes(Portuguese) fret
Trastornos afectivos(Spanish emotional disorders
Trastos(Portuguese) fret
Tras traseraChilean dance from the Quellón region that combines Spanish music and dance forms with aboriginal Chilean music and dance
trastullare(Italian) to amuse
trastullarsi(Italian) to amuse oneself
trasudare(Italian) to ooze with, to sweat
trasversale(Italian) transverse
trasvolare(Italian) to fly (across), to skim over
Tratado de glosas sobre cláusulas y otros géneros de puntos en la música de violones (1553)published in Rome, written by Diego Ortiz (c.1525-1570), an important treatise on viol playing. This is a major source of information on Renaissance ornamentation and improvisational practice, containing variations on set basses, arrangements of madrigals where the viol plays ornamental figures to a keyboard accompaniment, cadential embellishments, etc. His techniques adumbrated the English 'divisions on a ground' and the improvisatory, viola bastarda style
Tratsch(German m.) gossip (familiar)
tratschen(German) to gossip (familiar)
Tratt.abbreviated form of trattenuto
Tratta(Italian f.) trade (illegal), (commerce) draft
Trattamento(Italian m.) treatment
Trattato(Italian m.) traité, a treatise (for example, on the theory or practice of music)
trattare(Italian) to treat, to deal, to negotiate, to deal (with)
Trattative(Italian f. pl.) negotiations
Trattato(Italian m.) a treaty, a treatise (a written work)
Tratte(German f.) a draft (in business)
tratteggiare(Italian) to outline, to hatch (to add shading)
trattenendo(Italian) holding back, zurückhaltend, en relenant
trattenere(Italian) to hold, to repress, to retrain, to keep, to withhold
trattenersi(Italian) to restain oneself, to stop
trattenersi su(Italian) to dwell on
Trattenimento(Italian m.) entertainment, party
trattenuto(Italian) held back, sustained, retenu
Tratti(Italian m. pl.) features
Trattimenti(Italian m. pl.) amusements, diversions
Trattino(Italian m.) a dash, a hyphen
Tratto(Italian) a stretch, a stroke, a line, manners, a passage (from a book)
tratto(Italian) stretched, dragged, geschleppt
(Italian) taken
tratto, non(Italian) do not drag
Trattoria (s.), Trattorie (pl.)(Italian) a restaurant, an eating-house (in Italy)
Traube(German f.) a bunch of grapes, a grape, cluster (figurative)
Traubenzucker(German m.) glucose
trauen(German) to trust, to marry, to venture
Trauer(German f.) lamenting, mourning, sorrow, grief
Trauerfall(German m.) bereavement
Trauerfeier(German f.) a funeral service
Trauergesang(German m.) mourning song, dirge
Trauermarsch(German m.) funeral march
Trauermusik(German f.) funeral music
trauern(German) to grieve
trauernd(German) lamenting, mourning
trauern um(German) to mourn, to mourn for
Trauerspiel(German n.) a tragedy
Trauertragen(German) be (dressed) in mouring
trauervoll(German) mournful, sorrowful
Trauerweide(German f.) a weeping willow
traulich(German) cosy, cosily
Traum (s.), Träume (pl.)(German m.) dream
Trauma (s.), Traumata (pl.)(Greek) an unpleasant experience which induces hysteria or a morbid psychotic condition
Trauma (s.), Traumen (pl.)(German n.) trauma
traumatico(Italian) traumatic
traumatisch(German) traumatic
Traumbild(German n.) dream-picture
träumen(German) to dream
träumend(German) dreaming
Träumerei(German) reverie
träumerisch(German) dreamy
traumhaft(German) dreamlike, fabulous (beautiful), fabulously
traurig(German) sad, sorry, heavily, sadly, mournfully, pensively
Traurigkeit(German f.) sadness
Trauring(German m.) a wedding ring
Traurung(German f.) a wedding (ceremony)
Trauschein(German m.) a marriage certificate
Trautoniuman instrument invented by Friedrich Trautwein in 1928, that generates electronic pitches by pressing a wire on a metal bar, the position along the bar determined the pitch generated
Travaglio(Italian m.) labour, anguish
Travail (s.), Travaux (pl.)(French m.) work, a job, an occupation, a situation (position)
Travail à la chaîne(French m.) production line work
Travail à la pièce(French m.) piece-work
Travail à la tâche(French m.) piece-work
Travail à temps choisi(French m.) flextime, flexitime
Travail à temps partagé(French m.) job-sharing
Travail au noir(French m.) moonlighting (familiar)
Travail bien payé(French m.) well-paid work
Travail intellectuel(French m.) mental work, brainwork
Travail mal payé(French m.) poorly-paid work
Travail manuel(French m.) manual work
Travail musculaire(French m.) heavy labour
travaillé (m.), travaillée (f.)(French) worked, warped (deformed), wrought, polished (style, phrase),intricate (design), finely-worked (object)
travailler(French) to work, to warp (deform), to wrought
travailler à(French) to work on (a book, etc.), to work at (a task)
travailler à plein temps(French) to work full-time
travailler à temps partiel(French) to work part-time
travailler à temps plein(French) to work full-time
travailler aux champs(French) to work in the fields
travailler de jour(French) to work days (colloquial)
travailler de nuit(French) to work nights (colloquial)
travailler pour(French) to work for
Travailleur (m.), Travailleuse (f.)(French) worker
travailleur (m.), travailleuse (f.)(French) hardworking
Travailleur à domicile(French m.) homeworker
Travailleur agricole(French m.) agricultural worker
Travailleur au noir(French m.) moonlighter
Travailleur de force(French m.) labourer
Travailleur indépendant(French m.) self-employed person, freelance worker
Travailleur intellectuel(French m.) non-manual worker
Travailleur manuel(French m.) manual worker
Travailleuse familiale(French f.) home help
travailloter(French) to work just hard enough (pejorative)
Travail posté(French m.) shift work
Travail scolaire(French m.) school work
Travatura(Italian f.) beams
Travaux(French m. pl.) work, memoirs
Travaux à domicile(French m. pl.) home work
Travaux à la chaîne(French m. pl.) assembly line work, production line work
Travaux à la pièce(French m. pl.) piece-work
Travaux à mi-temps(French m. pl.) part-time work
Travaux à plein-temps(French m. pl.) full-time work
Travaux aux pièces(French m. pl.) piece-work
Travaux d'aiguille(French m. pl.) needle-work
Travaux d'aménagement(French m. pl.) alternation work, alternations
Travaux de bureau(French m. pl.) office work
Travaux de construction(French m. pl.) building work
Travaux de plomberie(French m. pl.) plumbing work
Travaux d'équipe(French m. pl.) team work
Travaux de recherche(French m. pl.) research work
Travaux de réfection(French m. pl.) renovation work
Travaux de réparation(French m. pl.) repair work
Travaux de spécialiste(French m. pl.) work for a specialist
Travaux dirigés(French m. pl.) tutorial (a type of teaching)
Travaux d'utilité collective(French m. pl.) work in the community
Travaux en atelier(French m. pl.) workshop work
Travaux en usine(French m. pl.) factory work
Travaux forcés(French m. pl.) hard labour
Travaux manuels(French m. pl.) handicrafts
Travaux ménagers(French m. pl.) housework
Travaux pratiques(French m. pl.) practical work
Travaux publics(French m. pl.) civil engineering
Travaux scientifiques(French m. pl.) sciencific work
Travaux sur bois(French m. pl.) woodwork
Travaux sur metal(French m. pl.) metalwork
Trave(Italian f.) a beam
travedere(Italian) to be mistaken
travedere per(Italian) to be crazy about
Travée (s.), Travées (pl.)(French f.) span (of a bridge), row (benches in an amphitheatre, church), row (seats in a theatre, cinema, etc.)
Travées du fond(French f. pl.) the back rows (in a theatre, etc.)
Travelling(French m.) dolly, travelling platform (cinematography), tracking (motion)
Travelling avant(French m.) tracking in [shot] (cinematography)
Travelling arrière(French m.) tracking out [shot] (cinematography)
Travelling latéral(French m.) tracking sideways [shot] (cinematography)
Travelling mandolinesee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Travelling optique(French m.) zoom shots (cinematography)
Travel literaturewritings that describe either the author's journey to a distant and alien place, or writings which discuss the customs, habits, and wildlife of a distant place
Travelo(French m.) drag queen
Travers(French m.) failing, fault, shortcoming
Traversa(Italian f.) a cross-bar, a side-road
traversare(Italian) to cross (the road, a room, the stage, etc.)
Travesata(Italian f.) a crossing
Traversflöte(German f.) flûte traversière, flauto traverso
Traversie(Italian f. pl.) misfortunes
traversière(French) cross, across, as in flûte traversière, 'transverse or cross-blown flute'
Traversière, flûtesee flûte traversière, 'transverse or cross-blown flute'
Traversino(Italian m.) cross-stay
traverso(Italian) crosswise, across, as in flauto traverso
traverso, Flauto(Italian m.) flûte traversière
Traverso terzettosee flauto traverso terzetto
Travesti(French, from travestir, literally 'to disguise') the French term for what in England is called a 'breeches part' or 'trouser-role' and in Germany is called Hosenrolle, a male character whose part is sung by a woman
travestire(Italian) to disguise
travestirsi(Italian) to disguise oneself
travestimento(Italian m.) a disguise
Travestito(Italian m.) a transvestite
travestito(Italian) disguised
Travestydebasement of a serious subject or serious literary work either accidentally or through intentional satire - especially through treating a dignified topic in a silly or inappropriate manner
travisare(Italian) to distort
Travis pickingon a plucked string instrument, one of the most common pre-set picking patterns, in which the thumb alternates between bass notes (often on two different strings) while the index and middle fingers alternate between two treble notes (usually on two different strings)
travolgere(Italian) to sweep away, to overwhelm
travolgente(Italian) overwhelming
Trazer de volta(Portuguese) recall
Trb.abbreviation of 'trombone'
trbn abbreviation of 'trombone'
Tre(Italian m., Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) three
Treadlelever worked by the foot and imparting motion to a machine
on treadle lathes, the up-down motion of the footlever is converted to the rotary motion of the workpiece held in the lathe
Treasury Relief Art Projector TRAP, begun in the spring of 1935 with a grant from the Works Progress Administration, an agency developed to help oversee the hiring of and works of artists. It was a division of the Treasury Department. The head of the organisation, said "There are not enough artists on relief to do our job and maintain the quality for which we stand." The TRAP's projects included the painting of murals in at least one post office in each state. Once publicised, a thousand artists submitted nearly 1,500 designs
Treat 'Em Rightone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Treatisewritten work dealing formally and systematically with a subject
Treblein the 14th- and 15th-century, the highest part in a three part vocal ensemble, or the second highest part in a four-part vocal work, equivalent to superius, cantus or discantus
often the highest part in choral singing or in a family of instruments
the term used in England for a recorder in F, also called the 'alto'
the unbroken boy's voice or the higher voice of a young girl, the other being termed 'alto'
bowed triplets in the Donegal fiddle tradition
Treble Cthe note one octave above 'middle C'
see 'octave'
Treble clefviolin clef, chiave di violino (Italian f.), chiave di Sol3 (Italian f.), Violinschlüssel (German m.), G-Schlüssel (German m.), clef de sol (French f.), clé de sol (French f.), clef de violon (French f.), clé de violon (French f.), clave de sol (Spanish f.)
treble G clef
one of the 'so called' G clefs
Treble recorderthe member of the recorder family also known as the 'alto recorder'. The majority of solo Baroque music written specifically for the recorder was for this instrument. Its lowest note is usually F above middle C and it has a fully chromatic range of about two and a half octaves
Treble shifta mechanical device found on an accordion that directs air from the bellows through additional reeds, typically one set tuned in unison, a second set tuned one octave higher, a third tuned one octave lower and a fourth set, the tremulant, tuned slightly higher than unison, to create a different tone quality of the melody notes
Treble violthe smallest viol in the standard viol consort
Treccia(Italian f.) a braid, a plait
trece(Spanish) thirteen
Treceava(Spanish f.) (interval of a) thirteenth
Trecento(Italian m., literally 'three hundred', short for milletrecento) a term referring to the 14th century (1301-1400). In music, applied to the Italian repertoire of that century (sometimes inappropriately called Italian Ars Nova, in parallel to that repertoire and notational innovations of the French Ars Nova). The repertoire also produced three main polyphonic forms: ballata, caccia, madrigal (in some sense also parallel to the three formes fixes of the French Ars Nova)
[entry provided by Clovis A. de Andre]
Trecento-Madrigalan Italian musical form of the 14th century (c1300-1370), a composition for two (and rarely three) voices, typically on a pastoral subject. In its earliest development it was simple construction: Francesco da Barberino in 1300 called it a "raw and chaotic singalong". Its origins are obscure, and debated, with one school of thought seeing it as a secular mutation of the conductus of the ars antiqua, and another seeing it as deriving from 13th-century secular monophonic song with an improvised accompaniment. As very little Italian music from the 13th century has survived, links between medieval forms such as the conductus and troubador song and the music of the trecento are very largely inferential
Treck(German m.) a trek
Trecker(German m.) a tractor
Tre cordaincorrect form of tre corde
Tre corde(Italian f. pl., literally 'three strings') a mark in piano music indicating the release of the soft, or una corde pedal. The una corda or soft pedal shifts the hammers so that they will strike fewer than the standard three strings per note (at least, over the majority of the piano's range). This softens the instrument's tone. Thus, by not operating these pedals, the hammers strike the maximum number of strings available
tredecim(Latin) thirteen
tredelt Takt(Danish) triple meter
Tredezime(German f.) (interval of a) thirteenth
Tredici(Italian m.) thirteen
Tredive(Danish) thirty
tredje(Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) third
tredve(Norwegian) thirty
Treedancinga special way of of dancing, in which one climbs into a tree, keep your hand to a branch and dance on the branch on which you stand, without falling off
Treemonishaan opera composed by African-American ragtime composer Scott Joplin (18671917). Though it encompasses a wide range of musical styles other than 'ragtime', and Joplin himself never referred to it as such, it is still sometimes referred to as a "ragtime opera". The score to an earlier ragtime opera by Joplin, A Guest of Honor, is lost
Treff(German n.) spades (suit of cards)
treffen(German) to hit, to strike, to hurt (figurative), to meet, to take, to hit the target
es gut treffen (German: to be lucky)
es schlecht treffen (German: to be unlucky)
treffen auf(German) to meet, to meet with (figurative)
treffend(German) apt, aptly, striking
Treffer(German m.) a hit, a winner
Treffpunkt(German m.) a meeting-place
Tregerthencottages rented in 1916 by D.H. Lawrence, his wife Frieda, John Middlton-Murry and Katherine Mansfield, where they planned their utopia 'Ranamin' whilst being watched by detectives who thought they were German spies
Treiben(German n.) activity, bustle
treiben(German) to drive, to do, to carry on, to indulge in, to get up to, to drfit, to foat, to sprout (botantical)
Handel treiben (German: to trade)
Blätter treiben (German: to come into leaf)
Blüten treiben (German: to come into flower)
zur Eile treiben (German: to hurry, to hurry up)
treibend(German) driving, hurrying, rushing, pressing, urging
Treibhaus(German n.) hothouse
Treibhauseffekt(German m.) greenhouse effect
Treibholz(German n.) driftwood
Treibriemen(German m.) a transmission belt
Treibsand(German m.) quicksand
Treibstoff(German m.) fuel
treinta(Spanish) thirty
treizième(French) thirteenth
Trek(Afrikaans) (one stage of) a journey by ox-wagon, although the term is used today for any arduous journey across country
Trekharmonika(Dutch, literally 'pull-harmonika') accordion
trekken(Dutch) to drag
treklang(Swedish, Danish) triad
Trekkspil(Norwegian, literally 'push-play') accordion
Trekkspill(Norwegian, literally 'push-play') accordion
Trekspil(Norwegian, literally 'push-play') accordion
trem.abbreviation of tremolo (Italian: vibrato, wavering)
tremando(Italian) with tremolo
tremante(Italian) with tremolo
Tremblant(French m., literally 'shaking') an organ and harmonium stop
Tremblant doux(French m., literally 'soft tremulant') - also called dans le vent ('in the wind'), an inclined valve fitted in a wind trunk, with a flexible spring (in the shape of a very thick reed languid) loaded by a mass at its extremity, oscillating in the wind. To stop it, there is a mobile finger which keeps the valve open all the time. The speed and intensity of the pressure variation is controlled by the couple elasticity on the languid / value and position of the mass
Tremblant doux de l´orgue(French m.) a marking found in 18th-century flute music, indicating the use of chest vibrato in imitation of the tremblant doux above
Tremblant fort(French m., literally 'strong tremulant') - also called à vent perdu ('with lost wind'), where, as in the tremblant doux there is a similar type of valve and oscillator, but some air leaks into the atmosphere out of the wind trunk. The effect is rather stronger
Tremblement(French m., literally 'shaking') trill (a rapid alternation between the note and the note above - usually starting on the beat and on the note above)
Tremblement flexible(French m.) documented in L'art de la Flûte Traversiere (c.1760) by Ch. Delusse : ...produced by rolling the body of the flute with the left thumb, increasing gradually the speed, without losing the embouchure. As the pitch will move both up and down it appears to be similar in effect to the normal vibrato used by a violinist
Tremblement lié(French m.) upper or 'inverted' mordent
Tremblement mineur(French m.) vibrato, usually a finger vibrato
trembler(French) to wobble (for example, of the voice)
trembleuse(French) (a cup) with a saucer provided with a socket into which the cup fits so that it will not be dislodged by a trembling hand
Tremblingshaking involuntarily from emotion (weakness, etc.), being in a state of extreme apprehension, quivering (leaves trembling in the breeze, or a tremble in his voice)
tremolo (Italian), tremolierend (German), tremblant (French)
trembloté(French) trembling, tremolando (Italian), tremolierend (German), bebend (German), trémolo (French)
tremendo(Italian) frightening, terrible, dreadful
Trem-locka feature first introduced on Jazzmaster electric guitars designed by Leo Fender. The "Trem-lock" allowed the guitar to function in a vibrato-free mode and boasted the added function of holding the guitar in tune even if a string popped while the guitar was being played
tremolando(Italian, literally 'quivering' or 'trembling') with tremolo, trembling, tremolierend (German), bebend (German), trembloté (French), trémolo (French)
in music, tremolo is the rapid repetition of one note in music or a rapid alternation between two or more notes. It is sometimes called tremolando, especially when referring to a rapid repetition on a bowed string instrument, one of the most commonly seen uses of the technique
tremolante(Italian) with tremolo
tremolare(Italian) (of a voice) to wobble
tremolato(Italian) quivering, trembling, wavering, wobbling (of a voice)
tremolieren(German) to perform a tremolo
(German) a term used by Emil Prill (1867-1940) in his German text in Schule indicating chest vibrato
tremolierend(German) trembling, tremolando (Italian), bebend (German), trembloté (French), trémolando (French)
Tremolo(English, German n., Italian m., Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Finnish) vibrato
the regular and rapid repetition of a single note, which on a bowed string instrument, means slight articulation without a change of direction in the bow, termed a 'slurred tremolo' or 'tremolando' and sometimes notated by a wavy line, or on instruments like the balalaika or the mandolin, the repeated use of a plectrum
a rapid alternation between two notes of a chord, this being termed a 'fingered tremolo' because it is produced by a rapid movement of the finger on the fingerboard rather than by rapid movement of the bow
variation in pitch, slow or rapid, during the duration of a note, a usage restricted to electric guitarists. These techniques are more normally called 'portamento' and 'vibrato'
Richard Carte's Instructions (for the Flute) (1845) includes in his list of "the chief ornaments" tremolo, which he describes thus: The Tremolo is a grace that consists in the wavering of a note. It is produced on the Flute either by giving a tremulous impulse to the breath, or by tremulously holding the Instrument. It is used in passages of pathos, and is indicated by the word tremolo, or is introduced at the fancy of the Performer.
in piano music, the rapid repetition of a single pitch, a device used mainly in highly virtuosic compositions such as Liszt's La Campanella, where it also occurs in the form of quickly repeated octaves. The tremolo of strings is also imitated on the piano by the rapid alteration of a pitch and its octave, or of the several pitches of a chord
in organ music, the term is applied the effect produced by the tremulant stop. This effect closely approximates the string players vibrato
the contraction 'vibrato' is often used for 'tremolo arm' or 'vibrato arm' on a guitar
Tremolo(English, Italian m.) or tremulant, a mechanical device used to provide an undulation in the tone of the organ, through a rapidly-recurring slight raising and lowering of the wind pressure. Both pitch and volume change in a regular rhythm, reminiscent of the 'vibrato' employed by instrumental players. Two such stops are described by Dom Bédos in L'Art du Facteur d'orgues (The Art of the Organ builder). John Pike Mander commenting on the Dom Bédos' tremulants notes "the slight unevenness of them and the way they react differently to the amount of wind which is passing through them. The ear seems to like this slight irregularity and it sounds more natural"
  • Tremolo from which this extract has been taken
Trémolo(French m., Spanish m.) tremolo
Tremolo armalso 'tremolo bar' or 'whammy bar', a lever attached to the bridge of an electric guitar that can slacken or elongate the strings temporarily, changing the pitch or creating a vibrato or pitch bend effect
Tremolo barsee 'tremolo arm'
Tremolo battuto(Italian m.) single beat roll (on a drum)
Tremolo col pollice(Italian m.) thumb roll
Trémolo dental(French m., Spanish m.) flutter tonguing, extremely rapid, tongued-articulation on a wind instrument. It is different from double or triple articulation (it is faster, but only used on a single note, not on different notes)
Trémolo en roulant la langue(French m.) flutter tonguing, extremely rapid, tongued-articulation on a wind instrument. It is different from double or triple articulation (it is faster, but only used on a single note, not on different notes)
Tremolo (Harfe)(German n.) a soft tremolo performed on a harp by lightly moving fingers rapidly back and forth across the strings, bisbigliato (arpa) (Italian), trémolo (harpe) (French)
Tremolo harmonicaa harmonica that have two reeds per note. In a tremolo harmonica the two reeds are tuned slightly off a reference pitch, one a bit sharp and the other a bit flat. This gives a unique wavering or warbling sound created by the two reeds being not exactly in tune with each other and difference in their subsequent waveforms acting against one another. The degree of beating can be varied depending on the desired effect. Instruments where the beating is faster due to the reeds being farther apart from the reference pitch are called "wet", whereas those where the beating is slower and less noticeable due to the reeds being more closely in tune are called "dry"
Tremolo (harp)a soft tremolo performed on a harp by lightly moving fingers rapidly back and forth across the strings, bisbigliato (arpa) (Italian), tremolo (Harfe) (German), trémolo (harpe) (French)
Trémolo (harpe)(French m.) a soft tremolo performed on a harp by lightly moving fingers rapidly back and forth across the strings, bisbigliato (arpa) (Italian), tremolo (Harfe) (German)
Tremolo legatoa rapid repetition (under a slur in the case of tremolo legato) of two alternating notes at least a minor third apart
tremolieren(German) to wobble
tremolo non legatoa rapid repetition (detached in the case of tremolo non legato) of two alternating notes at least a minor third apart
Tremolo pickingor double picking, a technique of picking on the guitar. The plectrum, or pick, is moved up and down rapidly, using the wrist, to hit the intended string of the guitar evenly. This gives a drone-like sound to a guitar, and more of a muddled hum than a clear and distinctive note
Tremolo strisciato(Italian) closed roll, roulement serre
Tremolo systemalso called a 'vibrato system', a device that includes a hand-operated whammy bar which, when pressed down, stretches the strings
tremore(Italian) tremor, trembling
tremoroso(Italian) tremor, trembling
Tremulant(English, German m.) also call tremolant or tremolo, a mechanical device which acts on the wind supply, used to provide an undulation in the tone of the organ
Tremuloan ornament used by Dominico Scarletti in about two dozen of his sonatas, which is to be distinguished from the trill by the fact that the tremulo uses the lower auxiliary, whereas the trill always uses the upper
see tremolo
Tremulousvibrato (Italian), zitternd (German), tremblant (French)
Tren(Spanish m.) train (railway), rate (as in 'at this rate'), lifestyle
Trenchant(of style, language, etc.) incisive, terse, vigorous
Trench coata loose belted raincoat (originally a soldier's lined or padded waterproof coat, tied with a belt of the same fabric, with pockets, flaps and sometimes epaulettes)
Trencher(historical) wooden or earthware platter for serving food
Trenchmorea lively old English country-dance
Trench poetrypoetry and songs written by both common soldiers and professional poets focusing on the disillusionment, suffering, and ethical dismay these individuals felt at their involvement in World War I
Tren correo(Spanish m.) mail train
Trend(English, German m.) general direction and tendency (of events, fashion, opinion, etc.)
Tren de alta velocidad(Spanish m.) high-speed train
Tren de aterrizaje(Spanish m.) landing gear
Tren de cercanías(Spanish m.) local train, suburban train
Tren de largo recorrido(Spanish m.) long-distance train
Tren de vida(Spanish m.) lifestyle
Tren directo(Spanish m.) through train
Trend-settersomeone who leads the way in matters of fashion, taste, opinion, etc.
Trendy(colloquial, often derogatory) fashionable
Tren expreso(Spanish m.) express train
Trénise(French) one of the figures of the quadrille
trennbar(German) separable
trennen(German) to separate, to detach, to divide, to split (a word, etc.)
Trennung(German f.) separation, division (for example, Silbentrennung (German: word-division))
Trennungsstrich(German m.) a hyphen
Trennungszeichen(German n.) breath mark
Trennwand(German f.) a partition
Trenodia(Italian) threnody
Tren postal(Spanish m.) mail train
Tren rápido(Spanish m.) express train
trenta(Italian, Catalan) thirty
trenta-dosè de pausa
demisemiquaver rest(Catalan m.) a demisemiquaver rest, a thirty-second rest, a rest one thirty-second the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
trente(French) thirty
Trente et deuxième de soupir
semihemidemisemiquaver rest(French m.) semihemidemisemiquaver rest, a one hundred and twenty-eighth rest, a rest having the time duration of one hundred twenty-eighth of the time duration of a semibreve rest (whole rest)
trente et unième(French) thirty-first
Trepak(English, German m.) a simple, popular, rapid, duple-time, Cossack dance
Trepitationfear, anxiety
Trepodionsee Terpodion
treppab(German) downstairs
treppauf(German) upstairs
Treppe(German f.) stairs, steps
eine Treppe (German: a flight of steps, a flight of stairs)
Treppenflur(German m.) a landing
Treppengeländer(German n.) bannisters (pl.)
Treppenhaus(German n.) a stairwell
Treppenstufe(German f.) a stair, a step
Trèsa Cuban guitar-like instrument, a fusion of guitar, tiple and bandola, with three pairs of strings (occasionally, as in Puerto Rico, three sets of three strings) hence its name. In Cuba the très is strummed to accompany songs and dances, particularly son and changüí, in folk music groups. In the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, très players pluck the strings to play melodies
tres(Latin, Catalan, Spanish) three
très(French) very, most
très accentué(French) very accented, molto accentuato (Italian), sehr betont (German)
très animé(French) very animated, very lively
Tresca(Italian) a country dance
Trescherella(Italian) a little dance
Tresconea Florentine dance similar to the cushion dance but employing a handkerchief
très détaché(French) very detached, spiccato (Italian), saltato (Italian), deutlich getrennt (German), très net (French)
très doucement(French) very softly, pianissimo (Italian), sehr leise (German)
très doux(French) very soft, pianissimo (Italian), sehr leise (German)
très égal(French) smooth
très élevé(French) very high
très en mesure(French) rhythmically exact, strictly in time, very measured, aggiustatamente (Italian), genau im Takt (German)
très estimé(French) much esteemed
très estompé(French) very blurred
Treset(Catalan m.) triplet
très fort(French) very loud, fortissimo, sehr laut (German)
Tres golpesterm used to describe the middle drum (salidor, tres golpes, quinto) as well as the pattern played on this drum in the rumba guaguancó
TreshchotkiRussian clapper
Tresillo(Spanish m.) triplet (group of notes), triolet (French)
(Spanish m.) used to describe the three note group of the three side of the clave when the rhythmic interpretation is 'in the cracks' between the duple and triple metre. In the son parallel of the Afro 6/8 clave, the rhythm is a literal triplet. In the son clave it is an interpretive triplet. The tresillo functions in the same way as the cinquillo
tres (indstyve)(Danish) sixty
très juste(French) all-just
très lent(French) adagissimo
très lentement(French) very slow, very slowly
lentement "is the equivalent of the Italian largo and indicates a slow tempo. Its superlative, très-lentement [very slowly] indicates the slowest tempo of all." - Rousseau (1768)
très marque(French) very markedly
très médiocre importance(French) very little importance
très modéré(French) very moderately (for example, unhurried)
très net(French) very detached, spiccato (Italian), saltato (Italian), deutlich getrennt (German), très détaché (French)
Tresor(German m.) a safe
Trésor(French m.) treasure, finances (financial resources)
très peu(French) very little
très peu de chose(French) nothing much
très pressé(French) in haste
très quelconque, de(French) plain-looking, ordinary-looking, nondescript
très rapide(French) very fast, allegrissimo
Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry or simply the Très Riches Heures, (The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry), is a very richly decorated Book of Hours (containing prayers to be said by the lay faithful at each of the canonical hours of the day) commissioned by Jean, Duc de Berry in about 1410. It is probably the most important illuminated manuscript of the 15th century, "le roi des manuscrits enluminés" ("the king of illuminated manuscripts"). The Très Riches Heures consists of 416 pages, of which about half are full page illustrations that are among the high points of International Gothic painting in spite of their small size. There are 300 enriched capital letters
Tresslong lock of human (especially female) hair, (as a plural, tresses) a woman's or girl's head of hair
Tresse(German f.) a braid
très suivi(French) well-attended
Trestlesupporting structure for a table consisting of two frames fixed at an angle or hinged, or of a bar with two divergent pairs of legs
très vif(French) very lively, very brisk, allegro assai
très vite(French) very fast, prestissimo
Tretakt(Swedish) triple meter
Treteimer(German m.) a pedal-bin
treten(German) to step, a tread, to kick
in Verbindung treten (German: to get in touch)
Treter(German m.) a bellows-treader
tretten(Danish, Norwegian) thirteen
trettende(Danish) thirteenth
tretti(Norwegian) thirty
trettio(Swedish) thirty
demisemiquaver rest(Swedish) a demisemiquaver or thirty-second note, a note one thirty-second the time value of a semibreve or whole note [entry provided by Lars Hellvig]
demisemiquaver rest(Swedish) a demisemiquaver rest or thirty-second rest, a rest one thirty-second the time value of a semibreve rest or whole rest [entry provided by Lars Hellvig]
demisemiquaver rest(Swedish) a demisemiquaver or thirty-second note, a note one thirty-second the time value of a semibreve or whole note
demisemiquaver rest(Swedish) a demisemiquaver rest or thirty-second rest, a rest one thirty-second the time value of a semibreve rest or whole rest
tretton(Swedish) thirteen
tretze(Catalan) thirteen
treu(German) faithful, faithfully, loyal, loyally
Treue(German f.) faithfulness, loyalty, fidelity
Treuhändler(German m.) a trustee
treuherzig(German) trusting, trustingly, innocent, innocently
Treujenn gaol(Breton) a Breton name for the clarinet
treulos(German) disloyal, disloyally, unfaithful
Treurmuziek(Dutch) funeral music, dirge
Trewsclose-fitting (usually tartan) trousers
Trezvonthe most common form of bell ringing in Russia on the zvon, characterized by distinctive rhythmic patterns which have been formally composed for this purpose. On a zvon of sufficient bells, there will be three contrasting rhythms, emanating from the bass, middle, and treble registers. The trezvon represents the most impressive style of Orthodox ringing, especially on the heavier zvons, whose largest bells can weigh as much as 72 tons
Trg.abbreviation of 'triangle'
Trge.abbreviation of 'triangle'
Trgl.abbreviation of 'triangle'
Triada collection of three ideas, concepts, or deities loosely connected, as opposed to a pure trinity in which the three concepts are much more closely linked or equivalent to each other
triade (Italian), Dreiklang (German), triade (French), the triad is a three-note chord made up of the root, which in root position is the lowest note in the chord, together with superimposed 3rds (the top note being a 5th above the root). When a triad is inverted, the root is no longer the lowest note in the chord. When the notes of a triad are not in their closest position, the triad is said to be 'open
all triads on C
primary triada major triad built on the tonic (I), subdominant (IV) and dominant (V) degrees of a major scale
secondary triada minor triad built on other degrees of a major scale
note:the triad on the seventh degree (VII) of the major scale when in root position is a discord. Its first inversion is, however, not. For this reason the VII triad is considered neither primary nor secondary
Tríada(Spanish f.) triad
Tríada mayor(Spanish f.) major triad
Tríada menor(Spanish f.) minor triad
Tríada con quinta aumentada(Spanish f.) augmented triad
Tríada con quinta disminuida(Spanish f.) diminished triad
Triade(Italian, French) triad
Tríade(Portuguese) triad
Triadicpertaining to the triad
triádico(Portuguese) triadic
Triad inversionssee 'inversion'
Triala dramatic tenor voice, named after Antoine Trial (1736-1795)
Trial by combata means of resolving disputes between knights in which both agree to meet at an agreed-upon time and place and fight with agreed-upon weapons. The knight who was in the right and honest in his words would be the one to win the day, since in popular medieval theology, it was thought that God would favour the just
Triangalo(Italian) triangle
Triangel(German n., Dutch) triangle
Triangle(English, French m.) triangolo (Italian), Triangel (German), triangle (French), a piece of metal rod bent to form the outline of a triangle but with one corner open, suspended from a chord, which is struck with a metal beater to produce a ringing tone of fixed pitch
Triangle wavean audio waveform theoretically comprised of an infinite set of odd harmonic sine waves. It is often used in sound synthesis where its timbre is less harsh than the square wave because the amplitude of its upper harmonics falls off more rapidly
Triangolo(Italian m.) triangle
(Italian m.) triangle wave (electronics)
Triángulo(Spanish m.) triangle
Trias(Latin) triad
Trias deficiens(Latin) the imperfect chord or triad
Trias harmonica(Latin) triad
Tribal artan umbrella term used to describe artefacts and objects created by the indigenous peoples of (controversially named) primitive cultures
Tribal housea form of electronic dance music derived from house music but being highly drum-centric and often without a core melody
Tribal Style Belly Danceor American Tribal Style Belly Dance, a recent movement in the USA that has addressed the feminist philosophy of empowerment of women through belly dance. Tribal Style today represents everything from folkloric inspired dances to a fusion of ancient dance techniques from North India, the Middle East and Africa.
Tribierre(Corsica) harvesting songs
Tribracha musical or poetic foot consisting of three short notes or syllables, rarely used in English poetry
Tribuna(Spanish f.) rostrum, platform, stand (for spectators)
Tribunal(Spanish m.) examination board
Tribunean upper storey over an aisle, opening on to the nave; also called a gallery
Tribüne(German f.) a platform, a gallery, a stand (for spectators)
Tribut(German m.) tribute, toll (of war)
Trichordan instrument, such as a lyre, harp or piano, that has three strings
TrichordIn music, especially in musical set theory, a trichord is a collection of three pitch classes, often one of the four ordered trichords in a tone row or set form
  • Trichord from which this extract has been taken
Trichordon(Latin) a three-stringed colachon
Trichord pianoa pianoforte which, for each note, has three strings tuned in unison throughout the majority of its compass
Trichromiea lithograph printed in the three RGB colours through the use of halftone colour separation. After the first trichromatic camera was developed in 1892 it was possible to create colour separations from black & white film with the use of colour filters. After this slow and elaborate process was simplified by the introduction of panchromatic film in 1906 it became easier to adapt to commercial colour printing. The trichomie method became the most popular technique to print in colour before the introduction of colour film. It could create the illusion of mutable colours without the need for using the older and expensive chromolithographic pallet
Trichter(German m.) a funnel, a (bomb-)crater, a bell
Tricinium (s.), Tricinia (pl.)
(Latin, literally 'composition in three parts') pieces of a pedagogical nature, the model for three-part chansons, composed in one of three ways:
use of a cantus firmus plus completely new material
combination of cantus firmus with parodied material from the model with little or no concern for originality
combination of cantus firmus and parodied material with significant original contributions
Trick(English, German m.) action or scheme undertaken to deceive, outwit or surprise (for example, an illusion, a feat of skill, a practical joke)
Trick endinganother term for an O. Henry ending
Trickerationa term invented by 'hard gospel' singers Ira Tucker Sr. and Paul Owens of the Hummingbirds Quartet for the combination of individual virtuoso performances and innovative harmonic and rhythmic invention, that amplified both the emotional and musical intensity of their songs
Trickfilm(German m.) a cartoon
trickreich(German) clever
Triclinium (s.), Triclinia (pl.)(Latin) a couch (used by the Romans for reclining on during meals) running round three sides of a dining-table, a dining room so equipped
Tricolonthe repetition of a parallel grammatical construction three times for rhetorical effect
tricorde(Italian) with three strings
Tricorne(French) (a cocked hat) with the brim turned up on three sides
Tricorno(Spanish m.) a three-cornered hat
tricorno(Spanish) three-cornered
Tricot(French) a knitted fabric usually either a woollen fabric knitted by hand or a fabric machine-knitted from fine wool, cotton, silk or an artificial fibre
Tricoteuse(French f.) originally one of the woman who watched the executions of aristocrats during the French Revolution, although the term is used more generally to mean any woman who watches scenes of violence unperturbed
Tric-trac(French) a form of backgammon popular in France
TrideksnisLatvian bell tree, which has a wooden handle and three layers of bells made of copper or brass
Trieb(German m.) a drive, an urge, an instinct, a shoot (a plant)
Triebtäter(German m.) a sex offender
Triebverbrecher(German m.) a sex offender
Triebwerk(German n.) a engine (plane), a mechanism
triefen(German) to drip, to be dripping
triefnaß(German) dripping
Triennale(Italian) (a fair, exhibition, celebration, etc.) held every three years
trié sur le volet(French) hand-picked
Triforium (s.), Triforia (pl.)(Latin) a gallery over the arches, and below the clerestory, along the sides of the nave and choir of a Gothic church
triftig(German) valid
Triggera lever used on certain brass instruments, trombone, horns, tubas, and trumpets, that provide special functionality
triginta(Latin) thirty
Trigonometrie(German f.) trigonometry
Trigononthe Greco-Roman harp
Trigrapha combination of three symbols or letters to indicate a single sound phonetically. For instance, the <tch> in witch represents a single sound phonetically, but English speakers use three letters together to represent that sound
Trihorya bransle-like dance from Brittany
Trikitixaa generic term, applied to a kind of dance, a style of music, a traditional Basque ensemble (including alboka, txistus and the two-row Basque accordion eskusoinu), or to the Basque accordion itself. Nowadays, the term is almost always used to refer to this last meaning, the Basque diatonic button accordion with right-hand rows keyed a fifth apart and twelve unisonoric bass buttons
Trikot(German m.) jersey (a fabric)
(German n.) a jersey (a garment), a (football-)shirt
Trilha(Portuguese) track, as on a CD or recording tape
Trilha sonora(Portuguese) soundtrack
Trilltwo equivalent trill notations
trillo (Italian), Triller (German), trille (French), a musical ornament or embellishment consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale
  • Trills - where the ornament is described in detail
  • Trill (music) from which this information has been taken
Trillando(Italian) a succession or chain of trills, on different notes
trillare(Italian) to shake, to trill
Trille(French m., Danish) trill
(French m., Danish) a fingered tremulo, Triller (German m.)
trille double(French m.) double trill
trillen(Dutch) to trill
Trillen (van stem)(Dutch) tremor
trillende Stem(Dutch) tremulous voice
Triller(Dutch, German m.) trill
(Dutch, German m.) a fingered tremulo, trille (French m.)
Trillerkette(German m.) a succession or chain of trills
trillern(German) trill!, also nicht trillern, don't trill!
Trillerpfeife(German f.) a whistle
Trillette(French) a short trill
Trillettino(Italian) a soft shake, a soft trill
Trilletto(Italian) a short trill
Trilli(Finnish) trill
Trilling(Dutch) vibration
Trillingsgetal(Dutch) vibration number, frequency
Trillingswijdte(Dutch) amplitude of vibration
Trillo (Italian m.) trill
Trillo(Italian m.) double trill
before about 1680 the Italian word trillo indicated accelerating pulsations of breath on a single note rather than the 'shake' or trill we find used from the Baroque period onward
Trillo caprino(Italian m.) see 'bleat'
Trilogia(Italian f., Spanish f.) trilogy
Trilogía(Spanish f.) trilogy
Trilogie(French f., German f.) trilogy
Trilogythree literary or musical works on a common theme
Trimthat part of an image that is cut off and discarded when an image is printed as a bleed. Whenever an image needs to extend to the edges of its substrate it is printed 1/8" larger on all four sides and later cut down (trimmed) to final size
Trimester(German n.) a term (a period of time in a school, college, university, etc.)
trimestral(mente)(Spanish) quarterly
trimestrale(Italian) quarterly
trimestriel(French) quarterly
trimestris(Latin) quarterly
Trimetera line consisting of three metrical feet
Trimm-dich(German n.) to keep-fit
trimmen(German) to trim, to train (familiar), to tune (an engine)
trinat amb mordent(Catalan m.) trill with turn
trinat sense mordent(Catalan m.) trill without turn
Trindpolskasee 'ring polska'
Trinitya grouping or relationship of three divine persons thought in some way to be equivalent or identical to each other - as is the case in the Christian trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Ghost) or the Egyptian solar trinity (Horus, Ra, and Atun - the sun-gods associated with the morning, noonday, and setting sun)
trinkbar(German) drinkable
trinken(German) to drink
Trinker (m.), Trinkerin (f.)(German) an alcoholic
Trinkgeld(German) a tip, a gratuity, a douceur
Trinkhalm(German m.) a drinking-straw
Trinklied(German n.) a Bacchanalian or drinking song
Trinkspruch(German m.) a toast (in honour of a person, event, etc.)
Trinkwasser(German n.) drinking-water
Trino(Spanish m.) trill, warble
Trino con mordente(Spanish m.) trill with turn
Trino de cabra(Spanish m.) see 'bleat'
Trino doble(Spanish m.) double trill
Trinonaan organ stop, of open 8 ft. small scale, with a pleasant Gamba-like tone
Trino sin mordente(Spanish m.) trill without turn
Trinvis bevægelse(Danish) conjunct movement
Trio(English, Italian m., German n., French m.) a group formed of three performers, or in a more generally sense, a group of three things
in the case of three voices, terzetto (Italian) or Terzett (German), are a more appropriate appellations
in jazz, a fairly standard trio line up would consist of a rhythm section of piano, bass and drums
a piece of music to be play by three performers
an organ trio is intended to be played by one person using two manuals and the pedal keyboard
a contrasted section between two performances of a minuet (i.e. minuet-trio-minuet), or scherzo. By convention, repeats marked in the intial minuet or scherzo which are generally observed when first played, are ignored when, after the trio, the minuet or scherzo is reprised
Trío(Spanish m.) trio, a group formed up of three performers or music written for such a group
Trío de cañas(Spanish m.) a trio of reed instruments (for example, oboe, clarinet and bassoon)
Trío de cuerdas(Spanish m.) string trio
Trío de piano(Spanish m.) a piano trio, three performers of which one is a pianist
Trio elétricothe term may refer either to the group founded by the Bazilian guitarist Osmar Macedo, the truck on which the group performed, or the loud, lightning-speed style of frevo that such groups play. Trios eléctricos remain a central feature of the Salvadoran Carnaval
Triol(Danish, Swedish) triplet
Triole(German f.) triplet
Triolet(French, 'little trio') a stanza of eight lines using only two rhymes, with the first line repeating three times
(French) a triplet
(French) a short trio
Trioli(Finnish) triplet
Triolindesigned and built by Hal Rammel and inspired by the live electronics of cellist Russell Thorne, the amplified table top arrays of Hugh Davies and others, the 'triolin' is plate on which perpendicular wooden rods sit. They are all amplified by a single contact microphone attached to the back of the instrument. The rods can be bowed, plucked, struck, or caressed
triomphal (m.), tromphale (f.)(French) triumphal
triomphant(French) triumphant
Trionfo(Italian m.) triumph, trump (card), epergne
Trioni(Italian Great and Little Bear, Charles's Wain (astronomy)
trionfale(Italian) triumphal
trionfante(Italian) triumphant
Triool(Dutch) triplet
Trio sonataa chamber music form for two featured instruments and continuo accompaniment, especially popular in the 17th- and 18th-centuries, when there were two forms, the sonata da camera and the sonata da chiesa
Triosonate(German f.) trio sonata
Trio theoryoriginally published in 1958, the trio theory, claims that when the most audible overtones of the three most nearly universal intervals (octave, 4th and 5th), are placed within the range of that octave, this gives rise to the most common scales: pentatonic, major & minor (depending how many of the audible overtones are so placed)
Tripa(Portuguese) catgut
tripartire(Italian) to divide in three, to divide into three parts
tripartito(Italian) tripartite
Tripelconcert(German n.) a concerto for three soloists
Tripelfuge(German f.) a fugue with three subjects
Tripelgriff(German m.) triple stop
Tripelkonzert(German n.) a concerto for three soloists
Tripeltakt(German m.) triple time
Tripelzunge(German f.) triple tonguing
Triphonythree sounds heard together
Trip-Hopnot hip-hop, not trippy, a subset of 'lounge electronica', usually melancholic, also known as 'The Bristol Sound' or 'Bristol acid rap'
Tripla(Italian) a triplet
(Italian) triple time
see Nachtanz
Triple articulation(French f.) triple-tonguing
Triple clarinetsee 'launeddas
Triple concertoa concerto for three solo instruments and orchestra
Triple counterpointinvertible counterpoint in which three parts can be interchanged, each making a suitable bass for the other
Triple coup de langue(French m.) triple-tonguing
Triple croche
demisemiquaver rest(French f.) demisemiquaver (thirty second note), a note one thirty-second the time value of a whole note or semibreve, biscroma (Italian), Zweiunddreißigstelnote (German)
Triple dottinga triple-dotted note is a note with three dots written after it; its duration is 1 7/8 times (1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8) its basic note value. Use of a triple-dotted note value is not common in the Baroque and Classical periods, but quite common in the music of Richard Wagner and Anton Bruckner, especially in their brass parts
Triple flageoleta flageolet formed of three conjoined pipes
Triplefuge(German f.) triple fugue
Triple fuguea fugue with three subjects
Triple harpa harp with three courses of (usually gut) strings, in which the outer two rows are tuned identically in a diatonic scale and the inner row is tuned to provide all the additional semitones of the chromatic scale. The triple-strung harp usually has no blades or levers. Today the triple harp is the national instrument of Wales
Triple hornthe triple French horn is the result of merging an F/B-flat double horn with an F-alto descant, adding a fifth valve to an already complex instrument. While the horn is suitable for work in nearly every register of horn literature, the added weight makes it tiresome to play, and for this reason it is not widely used
Triplekonzert(German n.) triple concerto (a concerto with three soloists)
Triple mamboan early name for the chachachá
Triple metersee 'triple time'
Triplepipesee 'launeddas'
triple pointée(French) triple dotted
Triple rhymea trisyllabic rhyme involving three separate syllables to create the rhyme in each word. For instance, grinding cares is a triple rhyme with winding stairs. Fearfully is a triple rhyme with tearfully. Triple rhymes are not unusual in some Italian poetry, but single and double rhymes are much more common in English
Triple stopplaying three notes simultaneously on a stringed instrument
Triple-strung harpsee 'triple harp'
Tripleteach of three children or animals born at one birth, set of three things
a tercet that forms a complete stanza by itself
tripletterzina (Italian), Triole (German), triolet (French), a group of three notes of equal time value performed in the time of two of them, however, (i) one or two of the notes may be rests of equivalent value, and (ii) a consecutive pair may be replaced by a note of double value
Tripletakt(German m.) triple meter
Triple timea time signature in which each bar (measure) has three beats, for example, 3/4 (bar is made up of three crotchets (quarter notes)), 3/2 (bar is made up of three minims (half notes)), 9/8 (bar is made up of three dotted crotchet (dotted quarter notes))
however, not 6/8 (bar is made up of two dotted crotchets (dotted quarter notes)) or 6/4 (bar is made up of two dotted minims (dotted half notes))
Triple tonguinga rapid articulation on a wind instrument using the pattern T-K-T or T-T-K, which very difficult to do on a reed instrument
brass players find that T-T-K produces a smoother tone than T-K-T
Triplextriple, threefold
Triplezunge(German f.) triple tonguing
triplicare(Italian) to treble, to triplicate
Triplicateexisting in three examples or copies, having three corresponding parts, tripled
triplice(Italian) threefold, treble (triple), triple
triplo(Italian) triple
Triplum (s.), Tripla (pl.)short for organum triplum, a three-part organum, the third voice to be composed, with a tessitura set slightly higher that the duplum/motetus although the ranges may overlap
in the 14th-century, the triplum often provides a countermelody above the primary cantus line whatever the number of voices
Tripodthree-legged stand for a camera etc.
stool, table, or utensil resting on three feet or legs
Tripode(Italian m.) tripod
Tripodianan ancient stringed musical instrument, so called because, in form, it resembled the Delphic tripod
Tripola(Italian) synonymous with tripla
Tripoli(Italian m.) rotten-stone
(English, Italian f.) North-African city. the capital and chief port of Libya
Tripos(Latin) the final honours examination for the first degree in the University of Cambridge
Trippa(Italian f.) tripe
trippeln(German) to trip along
Tripperperson who goes on a pleasure trip
Tripperia(Italian f.) tripe shop
Trippevals(Danish) a lively pre-Viennese period running-waltz
Trippone(Italian m.) pot-bellied person
trippone(Italian) pot-bellied
Tríptico(Spanish m.) triptych, triptyque (French)
Triptychon(German m.) triptych
Triptyque(French m.) triptych
a document issued by motoring associations to facilite the movement of cars across national frontiers, so-called because it was issued in triplicate
tripudiare(Italian) to exult, to jump for joy
(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) to dance or trip on the toes
Tripudio(Italian m.) exaltation, jubilation, jumping for joy
Tripúdij(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) dancings or trippings on the toes
Tripúdio(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a kind of tripping dance
Triregno(Italian m.) (papal) tiara or triple crown
Trisagion(Greek) a short Orthodox hymn consisting of the words 'Holy God, Holy and Strong, Holy and Immortal', sung three or more times
Trisavolo (m.), Trisavola (f.)(Italian) great-great-gransfather (m.), great-great-grandmother (f.)
Trisemitonium(Latin) the lesser or minor third
trisillabico (s.), trisillabici (pl.)(Italian) trisyllabic
Trisillabo(Italian m.) trisyllable
trist(German) dreary
tristasee tristo
Tristaccio(Italian m.) scoundrel, evil-doer
tristamente(Italian) sadly, grievously, sorrowfully
(Italian) wickedly
Tristan-Akkord(German m.) Tristan chord
Tristan chordthe half-diminished seventh chord; a chord named after the first chord in Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (1859), which was originally made up of the notes 'F', 'B', 'D sharp' and 'G sharp', although the name is now applied to any chord with the same intervals. The chord is ambiguous because it is not clear whether it should be considered an augmented sixth, a diminished seventh, a chromatically altered dominant seventh or a supertonic seventh
Tristano(Italian m.) Tristram
Tristan trumpetmade of ebony with an internal brass tube and one Périnet valve, which lowers the pitch a whole tone, first built to meet Richard Wagner's desire to have a wooden trumpet, similar in sound to a Swiss Alphorn, to play the happy melody that announces the arrival of Isolde in the third act of his opera, Tristan und Isolde, which premiered in Munich in 1865
triste(French, Italian) sad, low-spirited, melancholy, bleak (dismal), dismal, depressing, dreary
tristement(French) sadly
tristesse(French) sadness, melancholy, low spirits, depression
Tristezza(Italian f.) sadness, heaviness, pensiveness
Tristich(Greek, 'three lines') another term for a tercet
Tristezza(Italian f.) sadness, sorrowfulness, woefulness, dreariness, bleakness
tristo(Italian) bad, wicked, evil, sorry, wretched, deplorable
Tritacarne(Italian m.) mincer
Tritagonistin the earliest Greek dramas, the play consisted of a single actor standing on stage speaking and singing to the chorus. Later, a second actor (called the deuteragonist) was added by literary innovators, and later a third actor (called the tritagonist). In modern literary discussions, we use the term tritagonist to refer to any tertiary character who aids the protagonist (the main character or hero), but who does not serve as a deuteragonist (a constant side-kick or companion)
tritamente(Italian) finely, minutely
tritare(Italian) to mince, to hash, to pound, to rub down, to treat in too great detail (figurative), to over-refine
Tritavethe interval whose frequencies lie in the ratio 3:1, which in diatonic nomenclature, is equivalent to a 'perfect 12th'. A tritave is equivalent therefore to a full octave plus a perfect fifth
trito(Italian) minced, pounded, beaten, worn out, rubbed down fine, trite, commonplace, mincing, finikin
tritolare(Italian) to crush, to pound
Tritolo(Italian m.) scrap, little bit
Triton(French m.) the tritone, tritono (Italian m.), Tritonus (German)
Tritone(Italian m.) triton, Triton (mythology)
tritono (Italian m.), trítono (Spanish m.), Tritonus (German), triton (French m.), the interval of a superfluous or augmented fourth (for example, C-F#), or imperfect or diminished fifth (for example, C-Gb), two notes three whole tones apart. The tritone divides the octave into two equal parts and appears in both diminished and dominant 7th chords. It is the only simple interval identical to its inversion
Tritone paradoxsee 'Deutsch tritone paradox'
Tritone substitutionthe substitution of a chord (often a V chord) with another chord (in this case, also a V chord) whose root is a tritone away. In the case of V chord tritone substitution both chords share the same 3rd and 7th. In jazz turnarounds, it is common to do this for any of the chords. For example, a familiar series of perfect cadences can be replaced by chromatic motion of the root. Thus, the standard IIm7V7I sequence, a common feature of 20th-century popular song, is reformed as IIm7bII7I. A bebop musician faced with a chord marked as G7 (i.e. G dominant seventh) resolving to C, would replace it with Db7 (i.e. Db dominant seventh)
Tritone substitution II-Va II-V progression sustituting for a V chord a tritone away, or for the II-V progression a tritone away
Tritonica three-note scale pattern used in the compositions of some Southern African cultures
Tritono(Italian m.) tritone, trítono (Spanish m.), Tritonus (German), triton (French m.)
Trítono(Spanish m.) tritone, tritono (Italian m.), Tritonus (German), triton (French m.)
Tritonus(Finnish, Swedish, Danish, German m., Dutch, Latin) tritone
Tritoon(Dutch) tritone
Tritt(German m.) a step, a tread, a kick
(German m.) a treadle, a pedal
Trittbrett(German n.) the board on which the bellows-treader stands when 'blowing' an organ, a step
Trittharfe(German f.) pedal harp
Trittholz(German n.) the board on which the bellows-treader stands when 'blowing' an organ
Trittico (s.), Trittici (pl.)(Italian m.) triptych
Trittleiter(German f.) a step-ladder
Tritumi(Italian bits, scraps, crumbs
Tritusthe system of dividing the chant repertory into eight modes had its origins in the eight echoi of the Byzantine chant of the Eastern Church. Various terminologies have been used associated with this 'eight-mode system'. While the most widely used is that employed in the modern official chant books of the Catholic Church, in which the modes are simply numbered 1-8 in Roman numerals, other nomenclature, based upon different mediæval theorists, is also encountered. One of these, familiar to Hucbald (c. 840-930), to the 9th-century authors of the treatises Musica Enchiriadis and Scolica Enchiriadis, and to the author of the 9th- or 10th-century Commemoratio Brevis de Tonis et Psalmis Modulandis, is first found in a late 8th- early 9th-century tonary from S. Riquier (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 13159)
the late 8th- early 9th-century tonary from S. Riquier (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 13159) lists four modes: protus, deuterus, tritus and tetrardus, respectively, the Greek words for first (D is the finalis), second (E is the finalis), third (F is the finalis) and fourth (G is the finalis), and subdivides each of the four into two, the first of each pair being designated authentus (authentic) and the second plagis (plagal):
numberGreek nameBoethian nameas in Alia musicathe notes of the mode
reciting tone in red
finalis in blue
1.protus authentusphrygiandorianD E F G a b c d
2.protus plagishypodorianhypodorianA B C D E F G a
3.deuterus authentusdorianphrygianE F G a b c d e
4.deuterus plagismixolydianhypophrygianB C D E F G a b
5.tritus authentushypolydianlydianF G a b c d e f
6.tritus plagislydianhypolydianC D E F G a b c
7.tetrardus authentushypophyrigianmixolydianG a b c d e f g
8.tetrardus plagis hypomixolydianD E F G a b c d
hypermixolydianthe compass of a plagal mode is generally a fourth lower than the corresponding authentic mode. Today we identify the hypomixolydian as the eighth mode, whose finalis is D, a fourth lower than that of the mixolydian. However, originally the eighth mode was the hypermixolydian, whose pitch duplicates that of the hypodorian but in a higher octave, as specified by Ramis de Pareja (1482) and other commentators of the period
Triumph(English, German m.) a state of victory or success, an achievement, joy or exultation associated with success or achievement, a processional entry of a victorious general in ancient Rome
Triumphal archin Roman architecture, a freestanding arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or the opening of a new road
triumphieren(German) to rejoice
triumphierend(German) triumphant, triumphantly
triumphieren über(German) to triumph over
Triumphlied(German) triumphal song, a song of rejoicing
Triumviro(Italian m.) tirumvir
Trivata Hindustani classical idiom that features sargam, bols of tabla and tarana
Trivella(Italian f.) auger
trivellare(Italian) to drill, to bore
triviale(Italian) low, coarse, vulgar
Trivialità(Italian f.) vulgarity, coarseness, coarse expression
Trivialmusik(German f.) trivial music (music consider to have little or no artistic merit)
Trivio(Italian m.) cross-roads
Triviumsee quadrivium
(Latin, trivia, plural form) trivialities, particularly the less serious works of a writer
(Latin) a place where three roads meet
(Latin) commonplace
Trobairitzfemale troubadours, composer-poets of southern France, often nobly-born
Trobar clus(Occitan) or 'closed form', was the cryptic style of poetry used by troubadours for their more discerning audiences, and it was only truly appreciated by an elite few. It was developed extensively by Marcabru, but by 1200 its inaccessibility led to its disappearance
Trobar leu(Occitan) or light style of poetry, was the most popular style used by the troubadours. Its accessibility gave it a wide audience, though modern readers may find its somewhat formulaic nature tiresome after a while
Trobar ric(Occitan) or rich form of poetry, was distinguished by its verbal gymnastics, the best exponent of which was Arnaut Daniel. Despite the fact that it outlasted trobar clus it always played a secondary role to trobar leu
Trochaic meterpoetry in which each foot consists primarily of trochees (poetic feet consisting of a heavy stress followed by a light stress)
Trochaic rhythmanother word for double rhyme in which the final rhyming word consists of a heavy stress followed by a light stress
Trocheea musical or poetic foot containing two syllables, the first of which is long (in poetry, heavy) and the second short (in poetry, light)
trocken(German) short, dry, drily
Trockenhaube(German f.) a drier
Trockenheit(German f.) dryness, drought
trockenlegen(German) to change (a baby), to drain
Trockenmilch(German f.) powdered milk
trocknen(German) to dry
Trockner(German m.) a drier
Troddel(German f.) a tassel (a tuft of loosely hanging threads or cords)
Trödel(German m.) junk (familiar)
Trödelladen(German m.) junk shop
Trödelmarkt(German m.) a flea-market (familiar)
trödeln(German) to dawdle
Trödler(German m.) a slowcoach (familiar), a junk-dealer
Trofeo(Italian m.) trophy
Trog(German m.) a trough
Troglodita (s.), Trogloditi (pl.)(Italian m.) troglodyte, cave-dweller
Trogolo(Italian m.) trough
Troia(Italian f.) Troy
(Italian f.) sow (female pig)
Troiano(Italian m.) Trojan
troiano(Italian) Trojan
Troilo(Italian m.) Troilus
Troika(Russian) a carriage drawn by three horses abreast
used more generally to describe joint control of an organisation, etc. by three different authorities
trois(French) three
Trois âges de l'opéra, Lessee Ramistes
Trois cordes(French f. pl.) three strings, tre corde
Trois coups(French) the three knocks which signal the start of a performance at the Comédie Française
Trois-demi de dièse(French) 3/4 tone sharp (in microtonal notation)
troisième(French) third
Troisième corps(French m.) lower joint (of a wind instrument), loewer section (of a wind instrument), pezzo inferiore (Italian m.), Unterstück (German n.), Fußstück (German n.), patte (French f.), cuerpo inferior (Spanish m.)
troisième mode(French m.) ancient minor scale, natural minor scale
TrojkaCroatian triple flute
Trom(Dutch) drum
tromb.abbreviation of tromba (Italian: trumpet)
Tromba(Italian f.) trumpet, Trompete (German f.), trompette (French f.), trompeta (Spanish f.)
(Italian m./f.) trumpeter
(Italian f.) trump (as in last trump of doom)
an 8 ft. reed stop in an organ
(Italian f.) pump siphon (for drawing off wine), tube (anatomical), trunk (elephant), water-spout, public auction (figurative), spy, well (of staircase)
Tromba a macchina(Italian f.) valve trumpet, Ventiltrompete (German f.), trompette à pistons (French f.), trompeta de pistones (Spanish f.)
Tromba a pistoni(Italian f.) valve trumpet, Ventiltrompete (German f.), trompette à pistons (French f.), trompeta de pistones (Spanish f.)
Tromba a tiro(Italian f.) slide trumpet, tromba a tiro (Italian f.), Zugtrompete (German f.), trompette à coulisse (French f.), trompeta de varas (Spanish f.), trompeta slide (Spanish f.), trompeta bastarda (Spanish f.)
Tromba bassa(Italian f.) bass trumpet, Basstrompete (German f.), trompette basse (French f.), trompeta baja (Spanish f.)
Tromba cromatica(Italian f.) a chromatic or valve trumpet
Tromba da jazz(Italian f.) jazz trumpet, trompeta de jazz (Spanish f.), Jazztrompete (German f.), trompeta de jazz (Spanish f.)
Tromba da tirarsi(Italian f.) slide trumpet, tromba a tiro (Italian f.), Zugtrompete (German f.), trompette à coulisse (French f.), trompeta de varas (Spanish f.), trompeta slide (Spanish f.), trompeta bastarda (Spanish f.)
Tromba di bassa(Italian f.) bass trumpet
Trombadore(Italian m.) a trumpeter
Tromba marina(Italian f., abbreviated forms: Trombe, Trom: Ma or Trom:) its name probably a corruption of Marientrompete (Our Lady's trumpet), is a now obsolete instrument of the monochord family, which was used from the 15th- to the 18th-century. It had a single string which was bowed, a vibrating, adjustable bridge (rather like that found on the hurdy-gurdy or vielle-à-roue), a soundbox, a long neck and a tuning peg. The player touched a thumb lightly on the string while bowing between that point and a bridge to produce a clear, trumpet-like sound
Tromba naturale(Italian f.) natural trumpet, Naturtrompete (German f.), trompette naturelle (French f.), trompeta naturale (Spanish f.)
trombareto draw off wine with a sophon, to sell by auction, to reject
Tromba spezzata(Italian f.) trombone
(Italian f.) old name for the bass trombone
Tromba squarciate(Italian f.) used in Monteverdi's so-called Mass of Thanksgiving for Deliverence from the Plague, it is believed to be a mid-length straight trumpet
Trombatore(Italian m.) trumpeter
Tromba ventile(Italian f.) valve trumpet, tromba a pistoni (Italian f.), Ventiltrompete (German f.), trompette à pistons (French f.), trompeta de pistones (Spanish f.)
Trombe(Italian f. pl.) trumpets
Trombeta(Portuguese f.) trumpet
Trombetta(Italian f.) small trumpet, (child's) trumpet
(Italian f.) trumpeter, bugler
trombettare(Italian) to trumpet
Trombettiere(Italian m.) trumpeter, bugler
Trombettino(Italian) a particularly small trumpet
Trombitaa long natural trumpet of Poland, Czech Republic and the Ukraine
Trombón(Spanish m.) trombone (English, Italian m., French m.), Posaune (German f.)
Trombón contrabajo(Spanish m.) trombone contrebasse (French m.) contrabass trombone, double-bass trombone, trombone contrabbasso (Italian m.), Kontrabassposaune (German f.)
Trombón de jazz(Spanish m.) jazz trombone, trombone da jazz (Italian m.), Jazzposaune (German f.), trombone de jazz (French m.)
Trombón de pistones(Spanish m.) trombone a cilindri (Italian m.), trombón de llaves (Spanish m.), valve trombone, Ventilposaune (German f.), trombone à pistons (French m.)
Trombón de llaves(Spanish m.) trombone a cilindri (Italian m.), trombón de pistones (Spanish m.), valve trombone, Ventilposaune (German f.), trombone à pistons (French m.)
Trombón de vara(Spanish m.) slide trombone, trombone a tiro (Italian m.), Zugposaune (German f.), trombone à coulisse (French m.)
Trombone(English, Italian m., French m.) Posaune (German f.), trombón (Spanish m.), the name trombone is derived from several Italian words, including "trumpet" (trombe), and the suffix for "big" (one). This very popular brass instrument has a wider and much lower range than that of the horn or trumpet, and because it has a cylindrical bore, a characteristic slide mechanism that allows you to play both distinct pitches and glissandi (sliding tones) with ease. With the exception of such variations as double slides and valves, the contemporary trombone greatly resembles its ancestors from the 14th- and 15th-centuries. By the late 16th-century, there were three sizes of trombones: alto, tenor and bass. Contemporary brass trombones, very prominent in military bands, jazz groups and orchestras, are generally tenor trombones. Since the 17th-century, trombones have been featured in operatic scores, but were not used frequently in the full "classical" orchestra until Beethoven's 5th Symphony. In the United States, during the early 20th-century, touring concert bands and military bands paved the way for virtuosi soloists. The techniques needed to perform these specialty pieces and novelty numbers increased the standards of musicianship and challenges offered by composers
the modern trombone family includes:
piccolo tromboneno valvein high Bb, used by German Brass
soprano tromboneno valvepitched in Bb, an octave above the tenor trombone. The soprano trombone apparently first appeared during the last quarter of the 17th-century and found its primary usage in the Protestant Church, where it occasionally strengthened the soprano voice in the chorales. Foremost in using the instrument in this manner were the Moravians, who also developed an appropriate instrumental repertoire. In this way, the soprano trombone has led a marginal, yet honourable existence since the 18th-century. Its use is confined principally to the trombone choir
alto trombone
trombone contralto (Italian)
Alt-Posaune (German)
haut contre-trombone (French)
no valvepitched in Eb, a perfect fourth higher than the standard tenor trombone, its use is limited. Beethoven and his contemporaries created the first trombone parts to be played on the alto trombone. It also figures in the Moravian and modern trombone choirs
alto trombone
trombone contralto (Italian)
Alt-Posaune (German)
haut contre-trombone (French)
one valvein Eb/Bb, to help alto trombone players cope with the solo literature (and cover both alto and tenor trombone parts without requiring a second instrument), a valve section is added, which when engaged, lowers the pitch a perfect fourth
tenor trombone
trombone tenore (Italian)
Tenor-Posaune (German)
taille-trombone (French)
with no valvepitched in Bb, the standard trombone, its fundamental pitch is the same as that of the euphonium and is an octave below the trumpet or cornet
tenor trombone
trombone tenore (Italian)
Tenor-Posaune (German)
taille-trombone (French)
with one valvepitched in Bb/F; pressing the valve with the left-hand thumb increases the length of the air column and thus lowers the pitch a perfect fourth. If you hear someone refer to a 'trigger trombone', this is what he means - the valve is also known as a 'trigger'. Some manufacturers offer a convertible tenor trombone, from which the valve section may be removed to lighten the instrument when the valve isn't needed
bass trombone
trombone basso (Italian)
Bass-Posaune (German)
basse-trombone (French)
no valveearly bass trombones were pitched G, F, or Eb and had either had a double slide or a single slide that was so long that it required the player to use an extension device to reach 6th and 7th positions. Their bores and bells were generally smaller than those of modern tenor trombones
bass trombone
trombone basso (Italian)
Bass-Posaune (German)
basse-trombone (French)
one valvepitched in Bb/F; the valve has the same function as on the tenor trombone, but the bass trombone player will sometimes extend the tuning slide of the valve section so that pressing the valve will lower the pitch an extra semitone (half step) or more beyond the perfect fourth. This helps the bass trombonist with only one valve play a solid low C and minimizes the amount of "lipping down" that he or she must do to reach a low B below the bass staff
bass trombone
trombone basso (Italian)
Bass-Posaune (German)
basse-trombone (French)
two dependent valvespitched in Bb/F/Gb; the first valve, played with the thumb, lowers the pitch a perfect fourth. The second valve may be controlled with another thumb lever or with a lever for the left hand index finger. Pressing them both together will typically lower the pitch a perfect fifth or minor sixth, depending on how far out the player pulls the tuning slide for the second valve section, but other configurations are available. With two valves, a solid low B is within easy reach, so there is no need for the player to extend the first valve's tuning slide
bass trombone
trombone basso (Italian)
Bass-Posaune (German)
basse-trombone (French)
two independent valvesas in the 'dependent' case, the first valve will lower the pitch a perfect fourth, while the second valve, typically played by the left hand index finger, can be used even if the first valve isn't. Bass trombonists often tune the second valve section so that pressing the valve alone lowers the pitch a major third. Then when both valves are used together, the pitch is lowered by a minor sixth. Other popular second valve tunings lower the pitch by a minor third and a minor sixth
contrabass trombone
trombone contrabasso (Italian)
Kontrabass-Posaune (German)
contrebasse-trombone (French)
various configurationscommonly pitch in F/Eb/D, BBb; having a variety of pitches and configurations, the contrabass trombone is used in some trombone choirs and orchestral music such as Wagner operas As an alternative, and depending on the demands of the music, the performer will typically use either a large-bore trombone in F with two valves or an instrument pitched an octave below the tenor trombone, in BBb, having a double slide. Alternatively, especially in the orchestra pit where space is at a premium, the player may use a valve contrabass trombone in a vertical configuration, in which the lower part of the instrument rests on the floor. Contrabass trombones have also been made in Eb and CC
in French, the word 'trombone' means 'paper-clip'
Trombone(Italian m.) blunderbuss
Trombone(Italian, French) the trombone player
Trombonein an organ, a full-toned reed stop of the trumpet family, of 8 ft. scale on the manual and 16 ft. or 32 ft. on the pedal
Trombone a cilindri(Italian m.) valve trombone, Ventilposaune (German f.), trombone à pistons (French m.), trombón de pistones (Spanish m.), trombón de llaves (Spanish m.)
Trombone à coulisse(French m.) slide trombone, Zugposaune (German f.), trombone a tiro (Italian m.), trombón de vara (Spanish m.)
Trombone alto(French m.) alto trombone
Trombone à pistons(French m.) valve trombone, trombón de pistones (Spanish m.), trombone a cilindri (Italian m.), trombón de llaves (Spanish m.), Ventilposaune (German f.)
Trombone a tiro(Italian m.) slide trombone, Zugposaune (German f.), trombone à coulisse (French m.), trombón de vara (Spanish m.)
Trombone basse(French m.) or basse-trombone (French), bass trombone
Trombone basso(Italian m.) bass trombone
Trombone choir
Trombone contrabbasso(Italian m.) contrabass trombone. double-bass trombone, Kontrabassposaune (German f.), trombone contrebasse (French m.), trombón contrabajo (Spanish m.)
Trombone contrebasse(French m.) contrabass trombone, double-bass trombone, trombone contrabbasso (Italian m.), Kontrabassposaune (German f.), trombón contrabajo (Spanish m.)
Trombone da jazz(Italian m.) jazz trombone, Jazzposaune (German f.), trombone de jazz (French m.), trombón de jazz (Spanish m.)
Trombone de jazz(French m.) jazz trombone, trombone da jazz (Italian m.), Jazzposaune (German f.), , trombón de jazz (Spanish m.)
Trombone de pistões(Portuguese m.) valve trombone, trombón de pistones (Spanish m.), trombone a cilindri (Italian m.), trombón de llaves (Spanish m.), valve trombone, Ventilposaune (German f.), trombone à pistons (French m.)
Trombone, Germansee 'German trombone'
Trombone mute
namedescriptionhow indicated in the musical score or part
straight mutecone shaped object (usually metal, sometimes wood) with three pieces of cork to hold it in the bell of the trombonemute, con sordina, mit Dämpfer, avec sourdine
bucket mutebucket-shaped mute filled with cloth which clips over the bell of the trombonebucket
cup muteconical insert with a cup shaped bottom that covers the bell of the instrumentcup
Harmon mutemetal mute wrapped in cork and inserted into bell of trombone. The mute has a stem which is normally fully inserted, but may be pulled out or removed entirely. A 'waa-waa' effect may also be achieved by using the hand to cover and uncover the stem openingharmon; other instructions are 'stem out', 'remove stem' and 'waa-waa' (+ = shut, o = open)
Pixie mutesimilar to a straight mute and used with a rubber plunger, for solo work and for making the instrument "talk" 
plunger muteshaped like a plumber's plunger held over the bell of the trombone and opened or shutplunger (+ = shut, o = open)
solotone or cleartone mutea mute that produces a bright tone from the instrument 
Whispa or practice mutea mute usually made of fibre or with a piece of fabric to cut the sound 
Trombone ténore(French) tenor trombone
Tromboni(Italian pl.) trombones
Tromboni da caccia(Italian pl.) found in Vivaldi's opera Orlando finto pazzo and concerto RV 574, probably trompes de chasse, or hunting horns
Trombonino(Italian m.) alto trombone
Trombonistthe trombone player
Trombónista(Spanish m./f.) trombonist, tromboniste (French m./f.)
Tromboniste(French m./f.) trombonist, trombónista (Spanish m./f.)
Tromboniumin the 1950s, King (H. N. White, Co.) made this instrument which, while not exactly a trombone, is similar enough to one in bore profile to sound like a valve trombone
Trombonne(French m.) alternative spelling of trombone
Tromboona musical instrument invented by Peter Schickele, also called a babone, made up of the reed and bocal of the bassoon attached to the body of a trombone in place of the trombone's mouthpiece, combining the "worst" aspects of each instrument, a reed and a slide
  • Tromboon from which some of this information has been taken
Trombosi(Italian f.) thrombosis (medicine)
Trommel(Dutch) drum
(German f.) side drum, although the term may describe any type of drum
Trommelbass(German m., literally 'bass drum') a bass line that contains steady, constant, repeated notes
Trommelfell(German n.) skin drum-head
(German n.) eardrum
Trommelflöte(German f.) fife
Trommelkasten(German) the body of a drum
Trommelklöppel(German m.) drum sticks
trommeln(German) to drum, to beat the drum
Trommelreifen(German m.) counter-hoop (on a drum)
Trommelsaite(German f.) snare
Trommelschlage(German m.) a drum beat
Trommelschlägel(German m.) a drum stick, a beater
Trommelschlägeler(German m.) a drummer
Trommelsspiel(German n.) a drum chime
Trommelstock (s.), Trommelstöcke (pl.)(German m.) drum stick(s)
Trommelstok(Dutch) a drum stick, a beater
Trommelvel(Dutch) a drumskin
Trommelwirbel(German m.) a drum roll
trommenspel(Dutch)a drum chime
Trommler(German m.) a drummer
Trommlerkorps(German n.) drum corps
Trompalternative name for the Jew's harp
Tromp(French f.) a hunting horn
[entry supplied by Chandra Maeder]
tromp.abbreviation of trompete
Trompa(Spanish f., Portuguese f.) a horn, a trunk (of an elephant)
(Spanish m./f.) a horn player
a Jew's harp
Trompa de basset(Spanish f.) basset horn
Trompa de caza(Spanish f.) hunting horn, cor de chasse (French)
Trompa de Eustaquio(Spanish f.) Eustachian tube
Trompa de los Alpes(Spanish f.) Alphorn (English, German n.), Alpenhorn (English, German n.), corno delle Alpi (Italian m.), cor des Alpes (French m.)
Trompa de mano(Spanish f.) natural horn, cor d'harmonie (French)
Trompa de pistones(Spanish f.) French horn
Trompa de postillón(Spanish f.) coach horn, post horn
Trompa de válvulas(Spanish f.) valved horn, French horn
Trompa dupla(Spanish f.) double horn
Trompa francesa(Spanish f.) French horn
Trompa natural(Spanish f.) natural horn
Trompa omnitónica(Spanish f.) chromatic horn
Trompa sin válvulas(Spanish f.) trompa natural
Trompa tenor(Spanish f.) tenor horn
Trompa tibetana(Spanish f.) Tibetan ceremonial trumpets
Trompa vienesa(Spanish f.) Viennese horn
Trompe(French f.) hunting horn
[entry supplied by Chandra Maeder]
Trompe(Spanish f.) Chilean jew's harp used by the Mapuche Indians
trompear(Spanish) to thump (colloquial: punch), to punch
Trompe d'appel(French f.) signal horn
Trompe d'auto(French f.) car horn
Trompe de Béarn(French f.) alternative name for the Jew's harp
Trompe de Berne(French f.) alternative name for the Jew's harp
Trompe de chasse(French f.) hunting horn
[entry supplied by Chandra Maeder]
Trompe de Laquais(French f.) alternative name for the Jew's harp
Trompe-l'oeil(French) art so realistic as to deceive the eye (for example, perspective which produces a vivid illusion of three-dimensional space)
trompe-l'oeil effect is often used in interior decoration to give the illusion that a room is differently proportioned (for example, is larger) or has architectural details that while not real are perceived so to be (for example, wooden panelling)
an optical illusion created by a knitted design, popular designs include collars and buttons sewn in to the actual garment
Trompet(Dutch) trumpet
Trompeta(Spanish f.) trumpet, trompette (French)
(Spanish m./f.) trumpeter, trompettiste (French)
Trompeta baja(Spanish f.) tromba bassa Italian f.), bass trumpet, Basstrompete (German f.), trompette basse (French f.)
Trompeta bastarda(Spanish f.) slide trumpet, tromba a tirasi (Italian f.), tromba a tiro (Italian f.), Zugtrompete (German f.), trompette à coulisse (French f.), trompeta de varas (Spanish f.), trompeta slide (Spanish f.)
Trompeta china(Spanish f.) see corneta china
Trompeta con sordina(Spanish f.) muted trumpet, trompette bouchée (French)
Trompeta de caza(Spanish f.) hunting horn, corno da caccia (Italian m.), Jagdhorn (German n.), Signalhorn (German n.), cor de chasse (French m.), bugle (French m.)
Trompeta de jazz(Spanish f.) jazz trumpet, tromba da jazz (Italian f.), Jazztrompete (German f.), trompette de jazz (French f.)
Trompeta de pistones(Spanish f.) valve trumpet, tromba a pistoni (Italian f.), Ventiltrompete (German f.), trompette à pistons (French f.)
Trompeta de varas(Spanish f.)slide trumpet, tromba a tirasi (Italian f.), tromba a tiro (Italian f.), Zugtrompete (German f.), trompette à coulisse (French f.), trompeta bastarda (Spanish f.), trompeta slide (Spanish f.)
Trompeta naturale (Spanish f.) natural trumpet, Naturtrompete (German f.), tromba naturale (Italian f.), trompette naturelle (French f.)
Trompeta slide(Spanish f.) slide trumpet, tromba a tirasi (Italian f.), tromba a tiro (Italian f.), Zugtrompete (German f.), trompette à coulisse (French f.), trompeta de varas (Spanish f.), trompeta bastarda (Spanish f.)
Trompetazo(Spanish m.) trumpet blast
Trompete(German f.) a reed-stop of 4 ft., 8 ft. and 16 ft. pitch, in an organ
(German f., Portuguese) trumpet
Trompetengeige(German f.) tromba marina (Italian)
Trompetenkonzert(German n.) a trumpet concerto
Trompetenregister(German) trumpet stop or register, in an organ
Trompetenschall(German) sound of a trumpet
Trompetenspiel(German n.) trumpet playing
Trompetenzug(German) trumpet stop or register, in an organ
Trompete piston(Portuguese) trumpet
Trompeter (m.), Trompeterin (f.)(German) trumpter
Trompetero(Spanish m.) trumpeter
Trompeter-stückchen(German) flourish of a trumpet, a short piece played on a trumpet
Trompete, zirkulär gewundenesee 'trumpet, coiled'
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Trompetilla(Spanish f.) ear trumpet
Trompetista(Spanish m./f.) trumpeter
Trompetista de jazz(Spanish m./f.) jazz trumpeter
Trompetta(French) a reed-stop of the organ
Trompette(French f.) trumpet
(French m./f.) player of the trumpet, trumpeter, bugler
(French f.) a reed-stop of 4 ft., 8 ft. and 16 ft. pitch, in an organ
Trompette à clefs(French f.) keyed trumpet, which because of its inferior tone was soon superceded by the valve trumpet
Trompette à coulisse(French f.) slide trumpet, tromba a tirasi (Italian f.), tromba a tiro (Italian f.), Zugtrompete (German f.), trompeta de varas (Spanish f.), trompeta slide (Spanish f.), trompeta bastarda (Spanish f.)
Trompette à pistons(French f.) valve trumpet, tromba a pistoni (Italian f.), Ventiltrompete (German f.), trompeta de pistones (Spanish f.)
Trompette basse(French f.) bass trumpet, Basstrompete (German f.), tromba bassa (Italian f.), trompeta baja (Spanish f.)
Trompette bouchée(French f.) muted trumpet, trompeta con sordina (Spanish)
Trompette chromatique(French f.) valve trumpet
see 'keyed bugle'
Trompette de cavalerie(French f.) bugle
Trompette de jazz(French f.) jazz trumpet, trompeta de jazz (Spanish f.), tromba da jazz (Italian f.), Jazztrompete (German f.)
Trompette en chamade(French f.) a reed stop pipe set horizontally instead of vertically, often projecting from the front of the organ case. This method is generally used for powerful reeds, like the trompette, whose tone then becomes more intense and penetrating
Trompette harmonique(French f.) a reed stop of 8 ft. and 16ft. pitch, in an organ
Trompette marine(French f.) tromba marina
Trompette naturelle(French f.) natural trumpet, Naturtrompete (German f.), tromba naturale (Italian f.), trompeta naturale (Spanish f.)
Trompettiste(French m./f.) trumpeter
Trompongin the gamelan orchestra, a series of small horizontal gongs set in string carriages like the Balinese reyong or the Javanese bonang
tronar(Spanish) to thunder
Tronc(French) a pool of money into which waiters in a hotel or restaurant place their tips and from which they receive payment in proportion to their seniority and effort
troncare(Italian) to cut off, to cut short, to break off, to interrupt, to truncate, to break, to break in two, to clip (the end of a word)
Tronco (s.), Tronchi (pl.)(Italian m.) trunk (of a tree), trunk-line (railway)
(Italian m., literally 'truncated') a note in vocal music, abruptly broken off
tronco (s.), tronchi (pl.)(Italian) maimed, mutilated, broken off short
Troncona slice of flat fish on the bone
Troncone(Italian m.) stump, lineage (figurative), stock (figurative)
Tronco per grazia(Italian) see coupé de grâce
troneggiare(Italian) to sit (as) on a throne
tronfiare(Italian) to strut proudly, to spread its feathers (peacock, turkey), to puff, to pout
tronfio(Italian) puffed up, conceited
Tronie(Dutch, literally 'face') a common type of Dutch and Flemish Baroque painting that shows an exaggerated facial expression or a stock character in costume. Typically a painted head or bust only, if concentrating on the facial expression, but often half-length if an exotic costume featured, they might be based on studies from life or use the features of actual sitters
  • Tronie from which this extract has been taken
Trono(Italian m.) throne
Trontole(Croatia) drone zither
Troopa quick march, a march in quick time
trop(French) too much
Tropaan ensemble of instruments which belong to the same family type and consists of different registers of sizes
Tropariona short Orthodox hymn consisting of a single stanza
Tropesynonymous with 'mode' or 'tone'
in Jewish liturgy, tropes are musical phrase contours (cantillations) which are applied to the words of a sacred text during public readings. It also refers to the markings in some copies of those text to indicate the vocalization
an addition to a pre-existing chant (also known as a 'host') that is usually syllabic, sung by a soloist, textually monophonic or polyphonic. Tropes flourished in the 10th- and 11th-centuries but gradually disappeared in the 12th-century
in serial music, a trope is an unordered collection of six different pitches, what is now called an unordered hexachord, of which there are two (complementary ones) in twelve tone equal temperament
in literature, a trope is a familiar and repeated symbol, meme, theme, motif, style, character or thing that permeates a particular type of literature, but which, through the use of rhetorical device or figure of speech, can involving shifts in the meaning of words
what are today called 'tropes' actually served different functions and may be grouped into different types. Introit tropes (as well as those for Offertory and Communion) are new compositions, both in text and melody, added to the official chant. Often these are of considerably greater size and complexity than the original chant. Gloria and Sanctus tropes involve new compositions, but the official melodies may be roughly the same age as the tropes. The Agnus Dei is such a new liturgical form that it is difficult to separate the 'official' text, much less the melody. So-called Kyrie tropes may well be integral parts of the composition of the Kyrie itself. Texting of pre-existing melismas did occur, especially in the Alleluia, but these instances are infrequent and usually of later origin. It is particularly erroneous to describe the sequence as a trope of its Alleluia
Tropen(German pl.) (the) tropics
Troperbook containing the tropes (or, sometime after the 12th century, sequences), musical embellishments provided by the choir in the mass
Tropf(German m.) a drip (medicine)
tröpfeln(German) to drip
es tröpfelt (German: it's spitting with rain)
Tropfen(German m.) a drop, a drip
tropfen(German) to drip
tropfenweise(German) drop by drop
tropfnaß(German) dripping wet
Tropfstein(German m.) a stalagmite (that grows upwards), a stalactite (that grows downwards, i.e. hanging)
Trophäe(German f.) a trophy
Tropisee tropus
Tropicala catch-all term for the hybrid musical forms that resulted from the cross-pollination of various South-American genres including chamamé from Corrientes, Brazilian and Andean rhythms and cuartetazo from Córdoba, which came with migrants to the larger Argentian cities
tropicale(Italian) tropical
Tropicáliaor tropicalismo, a late-1960s/early-1970s musical movement that combined North American rock, blues, jazz, pop kitsch and psychedelic music with Brazilian and other Latin American styles
Tropicalismoa short lived social and political music movement that took place in Brazil, started in 1968 by Caetano Veloso and involving Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa, Veloso's sister Maria Bethânia and a number of other musicians, poets and intellectuals, that experimented with new sounds and words, adding electric guitars to their bands and utilizing the imagery of modern poetry
Tropico (m.), Tropica (f.)(Italian) tropic
Tropico del Cancro(Italian m.) tropic of Cancer
Tropico del Capricorno(Italian m.) tropic of Capricorn
Tropingthe insertion of extra texts and melodies between verses of well-known chants
tropisch(German) tropical
Tropo(Italian m.) trope
Tropologicala term referring to the interpretation of literature in which the interpreter focuses on the ethical lesson presented in the text, i.e., the moral of the story
Tropos(Greek, literally 'turn (of phrase)) trope
troppo (s.), troppi (pl.)(Italian) too, too much, too many (plural form)
troppo caricata(Italian, literally 'overloaded' or 'overburdened') a melody with an over-elaborate accompaniment
Tropus(Latin, German m.) a trope
troquer ... contre ...(French) to swap ... for ... else
Trost(German m.) consolation, comfort
trösten(German) to console, to comfort
tröstlich(German) comforting
trostlos(German) desolate, wretched, dreary
Trostpreis(German m.) a consolation prize
trostreich(German) comforting
Trota(Italian f.) trout (fish)
Trott(German m.) an amble, a routine (figurative)
Trottapiano(Italian m.) slowcoach
trottare(Italian) to trot
Trottata(Italian f.) trot, run
Trottatore(Italian m.) trotter
Trottel(German m.) an idiot (familiar)
trotten(German) to traipse, to amble
trotterellare(Italian) to trot along, to toddle (child)
Trotterello(Italian m.) jog-trot
Trotteur (m.), Trotteuse (f.)(French) a short walking skirt, a walking shoe
Trotto(Italian m.) trot
Trottoir(German n.) the pavement, the sidewalk (US)
Trottola(Italian f.) top, spinning-top
trottolare(Italian) to spin, to whirl round
Trottolino (m.), Trottolina (f.)(Italian) toddler, small child
Trotz(German m.) defiance
trotz(German) despite, in spite of
trotzdem(German) nevertheless, in spite of
trotzen(German) to defy
trotzig(German) defiant, defiantly, stubborn
Trou(French m.) finger-hole, tone-hole
Trou(French m.) finger-hole, tone-hole, foro (Italian m.), Griffloch (German n.), Fingerloch (German n.), agujero (Spanish m.)
Troubadour(English, German m.) the name troubadour (Provençal, trobador) has been traced with reasonable assurance from the Arabic root TRB (Ta-Ra B = 'music, song'), plus -ador, the usual Spanish agential suffix (as, for instance, in conquist-ador), so that Ta Ra B-ador would have meant originally simply 'song-' or 'music-maker'. By the 11th-century, Moorish Spain was a centre for Arab music including the remarkable singing slaves-girls (the qiyân) and the manufacture of the instruments that would spread gradually through France, influencing French troubadours and reaching the rest of Europe. The English words lute, rebec, guitar, organ and naker are derived from Arabic oud, rabab, qitara, urghun and nagqara'. Troubadours and trouvères were poets and poet-musicians who flourished in France between the end of the 11th-century and the end of the 13th. After the fall of the Roman empire, the vulgar Latin once spoken in France evolved into two similar languages, the langue d'oïl of Northern France and the langue d'oc of the southern Occitanian regions. The troubadours wrote their verse using the langue d'oc, which is said to be the more lyric and beautiful of the two languages. The troubadour counterpart of Northern France was known as a trouvère. Although both northern and southern performers led similar courtly roles, only the southern troubadour is identified with the Catharist heresy, a relationship which eventually led to the persecution of troubadours by Pope Innocent III. The troubadours, who used Provençal (the langue d'oc), created new musical forms that incorporated the informal music of the people. Troubadour music declined during the 13th-century as the courts of southern France were destroyed in the course of the Albigensian Crusade
trouvères (in Northern France) and troubadours (in Southern France) were an integral part of courtly life in France and their songs provide narrative insight into the lives and courts of the noblemen. Because the courtly duties of these poet-musicians were both literary and musical, they composed to reflect the issues, feelings and characteristics in the castles and courts of the wealthy, and there was a special genre for every occasion:
sirventésthe setting of a satirical poem to a pre-composed, popular song
jeu-parti, joc-partit, partimen or débata discussion song, political or generally opinionated
planhlament on the death of a friend
geste or chanson de gestean epic poem, sung by a ménestrel to the accompaniment of a viol or lyre; for example, the Chanson de Roland
chanson à danser or estampidaa song to encourage dancing
gapa challenge
dansa or baladaa song based on a dance form
chanson à personnages were predominantly, but not exclusively, concerned with the love of women, a genre that also includes:
canso or chanson d'amoura courtly love song, usually composed in honor of a specific lady
pastora, pastorella or pastourellea rowdy song about the loving exploits of a knight (perhaps a crusader) and a shepherdess
albaa song of praise and/or blame, heralding the break of dawn as the point where love's battle has been either won or lost. The equivalent literary form is the aube
escondiga lover's apologia
descort, retroncha (or lay in Northern France)are discordant, sorrowful or "crying" songs about unrequited love, cruelty or deceit
song peculiar to the trouvère tradition include:
chanson avec refrainswhere the strophic repetition is broken into by the insertion of refrains
chanson de toile (weaving-song, old French chanson d'histoire)a courtly, mock-popular song like the pastorela
religious songs 
there is good evidence to suggest that there were four ranks of troubadours:
jongleursonly part-time musicians; their primary function was to entertain using acrobatics, animals, and props
ménestrelsfull-time musicians; their rank is subordinate to the troubadour because their repertoire consisted primarily of other composers' songs
troubadoursthe composers of music and lyric; they primarily performed their own songs
doctores de trobarthe highest rank of troubadour, the finest of the composers
Troubadour harpsee 'celtic harp'
Trou d'F(French m.) or ouïe (French f.) F-hole, soundhole (on a string-instrument), F-Loch (German n.) or Schallloch (German n.), foro armonico (Italian m.), "f" (Italian f.), f or sound hole(s) of instruments of the violin family, etc.
Troupe(French) a company (of actors, dancers, etc.)
Trousseau (s.), Trousseaux (pl.)(French) a bride's outfit of clothes and household linen
Trouvaille(French f.) a lucky find, a windfall, something exceptionally good discovered by accident
Trouvère (s.), Trouvères (pl.)(French m.) similar to the troubadour but based in Northern France and using French, the langue d'oïl
see troubadour
trouver le juste milieu entre(French) to strike a balance
trouver l'oiseau rare(French) to find Mr. Right (colloquial)
Trovaanother term used to describe a style of the Spanish canción form, with the sensibility of the troubador style
trovabile(Italian) possible to find
Trovadorfrom the Trovador tradition on the Iberian Peninsula, some 1680 cantigas (songs), written in Galician-Portuguese between the 12th and 14th centuries, have survived in a handful of cancioneiros (song books), the most important of which were discovered in the 18th and 19th centuries. The language of the cantigas reflects the vernacular spoken north and south of the Minho River, which divides Galicia from Portugal, and, for reasons that are still obscure, was the preferred idiom of lyric poets in every Peninsular region except Catalonia
Trovadore (s.), Trovadores (pl.)(Spanish m.) troubadour, Provençal poet, minstrel, ménestrel (French)
Trovadore (s.), Trovadori (pl.)(Italian m.) troubadour, Provençal poet, minstrel, ménestrel (French)
trovadoresco(Spanish, adjectival) troubadour
trovare(Italian) to find, to find out, to discover, to get, to think, to like to spare (the time)
Trovarobe(Italian m.) property man, costumier (theatre)
trovarsi(Italian) to be, to feel, to happen to be
trovarsi in difficoltà(Italian) to be in trouble
Trovata(Italian f.) (lucky) find, invention, contrivance, trick, expedient
Trovatello(Italian m.) foundling
Trovato(Italian m.) invention, discovery, contrivance
Trovatore (s.), Trovatori (pl.)(Italian m.) finder, inventor
(Italian m.) troubadour, Provençal poet, minstrel, ménestrel (French)
Trovero(Spanish m.) trouvère
Trpabbreviation of Trompete (German: trumpet - trompette (French))
Trsteniceor trstenke, Croatian panpipes
Trstenkesee trstenice
trüb, trübe(German) sad
Trubachei(Old Russian) anyone who played the horn or trumpet
trübe(German) dull, dim (light), cloudy, gloomy (figurative)
Trubel(German m.) bustle
trüben(German) to dull, to make cloudy, to spoil (figurative), to strain (a relationship)
Trübsal(German f.) misery
Trübsal blasen(German) to mope (familiar)
trübselig(German) con afflizione (Italian) or con accoramento (Italian), with grief, miserable, gloomy, miserably, gloomily, mit Betrübnis (German), attristé (French)
Trübsinn(German m.) melancholy
trübsinnig(German) melancholy
Trucage(French) or truquage, the faking of a work of art
truccare(Italian) to cheat, to make up (theatre)
truccarsi(Italian) to make (oneself) up (theatre)
Truccatore(Italian m.) dresser (theatre)
Truccatura(Italian f.) make up (theatre), making up
Trucco (s.), Trucchi (pl.)(Italian m.) trick
truce(Italian) cruel, savage, fierce, threatening, grim
trucemente(Italian) fiercely, cruelly, savagely, threateningly
trucidare(Italian) to kill, to murder, to cut up
Truciolo(Italian m.) chip (of wood), shaving (of wood)
Truco para atraer al público(Spanish m.) gimmick to attract the public
truculento(Italian) truculent
True Crosssupposedly the actual cross on which Christ was crucified; there were fragments of it preserved as relics across Christendom
True licksee 'lick'
Trueno(Spanish m.) thunder, tuono (Italian m.), tonnerre (French m.), Donner (German m.)
(Spanish m.) thunder clap, scoppio di tuono (Italian m.), coup de tonnerre (French m.), Donnerschlag (German m.)
True rhymeanother term for perfect rhyme or exact rhyme
Truffa(Italian f.) cheat, swindle, swindling
truffare(Italian) to cheat, to swindle
Truffatore (m.), Truffatrice (f.)(Italian) cheat (person), swindler
Truffatore di carte(Italian m.) card-sharper
Trufferia(Italian f.) cheating, swindling, trick
Trugbild(German n.) an illusion
trügen(German) to deceive, to be deceptive
trügerisch(German) false, deceptive
Trugkadenz(German f.) deceptive cadence, interrupted cadence, evaded cadence, false cadence
Trugschluss(German m.) a fallacy
(German m.) deceptive cadence, interrupted cadence, evaded cadence, false cadence
Truhe(German f.) chest
Truhenorgel(German f.) chest organ
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
see 'chest organ'
Truhkunpia North-American scraper
Trullaggine(Italian f.) silliness
Trulleria(Italian f.) silliness
Trullo(Italian m.) simpleton, nincompoop
trullo(Italian) silly
Trumeau (s.), Trumeaux (pl.)(French) a wall-space between windows, a pier-glass
Trummelsee Trommel
Trümmer(German pl.) rubble, wreckage, ruins (figurative)
Trümmerhaufen(German m.) a pile of rubble
TrumpJew's harp
Trumpet tromba (Italian f.), Trompete (German f.), trompette (French f.), trompeta (Spanish f.), a brass wind instrument composed of a long metal tube looped once and ending in a flared bell. The pressure and shape of the lips in the mouthpiece and the strength of the air pressure, used in combination with the valves, determine the pitch produced. Historically, trumpets have been made from bamboo, cane, silver, shell, ivory, wood or bone. Many instruments were relatively straight in shape, such as the Arabic nafir, which resembles European coach horns. The oldest evidence of trumpets has been found in Egyptian drawings dating to 1500 BC
characteristics and common use of the trumpet:
cylindrical bore
brilliant sound
marching and concert bands
not regularly used in jazz until 1930s
characteristics and common use of the cornet:
soft sound
conical bore
trumpet family
used in Dixieland and other marching bands
characteristics and common use of the flugelhorn:
mellow sound
conical bore
very wide bell
used in jazz to double and soften the tone of the trumpet
there are many varieties of trumpet:
piccolo trumpetG/F (four valve)
piccolo trumpetBb/A (four valve)
soprano trumpetD
soprano trumpetC, the standard orchestral trumpet
soprano trumpetBb, the standard band trumpet
alto or contralto trumpetF
alto or contralto trumpetE
alto or contralto trumpetEb
alto or contralto trumpetEb/D (four valve)
bass trumpetBb, an octave below the soprano Bb trumpet
contrabass trumpetF, a fourth below the bass trumpet
flugelhornBb, the same as the Bb soprano trumpet
originally, trumpets were used for communication purposes, like signaling in battle, or announcing someone's arrival. During the Middle Ages, the trumpet, more than any other instrument, was associated with pomp and pageantry. It was known as the "nobleman" among musical instruments, because trumpet performers stood at the king's right hand. During the Renaissance, trumpeters finally began to make music, instead of just playing fanfares and battle calls
in the late 19th-century and early 20th-century, as folk blues, big band, ragtime and swing music appeared, the trumpet became a part of these new art forms. Around the time of World War II, the trumpet began to be used extensively in jazz. It became the lead instrument, because of its versatility in playing everything from mellow sounding to brassy parts. When necessary, the trumpet can be loud enough to be heard clearly in almost any setting, from concert halls to noisy nightclubs. It is commonly featured in concert, marching and jazz bands as well as orchestras, brass ensembles and mariachi bands
Trumpetin an organ, a powerful reed stop whose pipes have conical resonators
Trumpet, baroquesee 'baroque trumpet'
Trumpet, coiledzirkulär gewundene Trompete (German f.), a member of the trumpet family where the naturally long tube has been coiled into a continuous spiral bound with cord
[entry amended by Michael Zapf]
Trumpetera player of the trumpet
Trumpetista player of the trumpet
Trumpet marinesee tromba marina
Trumpet mute
namedescriptionhow indicated in the musical score or part
straight mutecone shaped object (usually metal) with three pieces of cork to hold it in the bell of the trumpetmute, con sordina, mit Dämpfer, avec sourdine
bucket mutebucket-shaped mute filled with cloth which clips over the bell of the trumpetbucket
cup muteconical insert with a cup shaped bottom that covers the bell of the instrumentcup
softtone muteunique fabric design hangs over the end of the bell and softens the sound, cutting the volume somewhat and removing the highs. It can be used as a simple practice mute or as a bucket mute 
Harmon mutemetal mute wrapped in cork and inserted into bell of trumpet. The mute has a stem which is normally fully inserted, but may be pulled out or removed entirely. A 'waa-waa' effect may also be achieved by using the hand to cover and uncover the stem openingharmon; other instructions are 'stem out', 'remove stem' and 'waa-waa' (+ = shut, o = open)
plunger muteshaped like a plumber's plunger held over the bell of the trumpet and opened or shutplunger (+ = shut, o = open)
Whispa mutea practice mute made of fibre 
Trumpet, naturalsee 'baroque trumpet'
Trumpet organ harmonicaKoch and Hohner vied to outdo one another in their production of harmonicas. The trumpet horns fitted to the instrument serve no practical function and are purely decorative
Trumpet, slidesee 'slide trumpet'
Trumpf(German m.) trump (card)
Trumscheit(German n.) a rude musical instrument, with one or more strings, played with a bow, and imitating the sound of a trumpet
(German n.) tromba marina (Italian)
Truncated phrasesee 'extended phrase'
TrunfaItalian's jew's harp
T 'rungthe t'rung is a suspended bamboo xylophone, native to the Jarai people of south central Vietnam. The original instruments were simply made, using a series of bamboo pipes struck with small sticks. The modern t'rung has three rows of pipes spanning three full octaves and is fully chromatic. The t'rung has become a popular instrument in Vietnam because of its ability to imitate the sound of water
Trunk(German m.) a drink
Trunkenbold(German m.) a drunkard
Trunkenheit(German f.) drunkenness
Trunkenheit am Steuer(German) drunken driving
Trunksucht(German f.) alcoholism
Trupp(German m.) group, squad (military)
Truppa(Italian f.) troop, band, host, set (group), gang, troupe (theatrical), flock
Truppe (s.), Truppen (pl.)(German f.) (military) unit, (theatrical) troupe, troops (plural form)
Truquage(French) or trucage, the faking of a work of art
Truqueur(French m.) a faker of works of art
Trussesthe "legs" of the piano
Truss roda long rod placed inside the wooden neck of a guitar, below the fingerboard, to help stabilizing it. On most guitars, it can be adjusted to change the relief of the neck
Truthahn(German m.) a turkey
TrVafter Franz Trenner, the cataloguer of music by Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
Tryckning(Swedish) impression
Trykk(Norwegian) impression
Trykkeri(Danish, Norwegian) printers
Trylonthe 'Trylon' is built using aluminum, stainless steel, brass, wood, guitar strings, magnetic and piezo pickups and was invented and created by Oliver DiCicco
  • Trylon from which this extract has been taken
Trzanje(Croatian) the term describing the use of the plectrum, for example, when playing a tambura, that, through fast, successive up-and-down-movements of the hand holding the plectrum, produces a tremolo effect